The disruptions of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature and rainfall that occur during the climate pattern called "ENSO" trigger a cascade of global side effects. These maps show how El Niño and La Niña affect seasonal climate around the world.
Global surface temperature was record warm in 2015, moving ahead of the record set just last year by 0.29°F—the largest margin by which one year has ever beaten another since official records began in 1880.
“Arctic amplification” of climate change remained in full swing in 2015, according to the 2015 Arctic Report Card. Broad areas of the Arctic were more than 5°F (3°C) warmer than average during the report card’s monitoring year (October 2014-September 2015).
Increasing air and sea surface temperatures, decreasing sea ice extent and Greenland ice sheet mass, and changing behavior of fish and walrus are among key observations released today in the Arctic Report Card 2015.