July 12, 2014

The globally averaged sea surface temperature in 2013 was among the 10 highest on record, with the North Pacific reaching an historic high temperature. ENSO-neutral conditions and a negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation pattern had the largest impacts on global sea surface temperature in 2013.

July 12, 2014

Upper ocean heat content has increased significantly over the past two decades. An estimated 70 percent of the excess heat has accumulated in the top 2,000 feet of the ocean, and the rest has flowed into deeper ocean layers.

August 25, 2016

Understanding the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) as multiple layers of ice cream.  And how is it related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation?