Maps & Data

Global-scale maps of monthly and yearly temperature anomalies show where it was warmer or cooler than the long-term average from 1981 to 2010. Clicking any grid cell on the map produces a bar graph of annual temperature anomalies for that cell from the time data collection began at that location through the present.

The mapping tool shows temperature anomalies calculated from the National Climatic Distribution Center's merged surface temperature product, which combines land-based temperatures from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly (GHCN-M) data set with sea-surface temperatures from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature data set (ERSST v3b). The monthly analysis begins January 1854, but due to very sparse data, no global averages are computed before 1880.

This tool generates time series graphs of temperature anomalies. Values are calculated from the National Climatic Distribution Center's merged surface temperature product, which combines land-based temperatures from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly (GHCN-M) data set with sea-surface temperatures from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature dataset (ERSST v3b). Users select the entire globe, or the Northern or Southern Hemisphere and a time scale from 1 month to 60 months, or specific time periods such as Annual, Year to date, or Previous 12 months. The base period for calculating anomalies is 1901 to 2000. Users can overlay trend lines for any part of the record, and zoom and pan on the interactive graphs.

The National Research Council (NRC) defines a CDR as a time series of measurements of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to determine climate variability and change. (National Research Council, 2004).

For the first time, NOAA is applying modern data analysis methods, which have advanced significantly in the last decade, to these historical global satellite data. This process will unravel the underlying climate trend and variability information and return new economic and scientific value from the records. In parallel, NCDC will maintain and extend these Climate Data Records by applying the same methods to present-day and future satellite measurements.

Climate Prediction Center Temperature, Precipitation, and GFS Forecast products that include operational predictions of climate variability, real-time global climate monitoring products, and assessments of the origins of climate anomalies. The retrospective analyses and forecast products span time scales from a week to a year and cover the land, ocean, and atmosphere, extending into the stratosphere.

GHCN (Global Historical Climatology Network)-Daily is a data set whose aim is to address the need for historical daily records over global land areas. Like its monthly counterpart (GHCN-Monthly), GHCN-Daily is a composite of climate records from numerous sources that were merged and then subjected to a suite of quality assurance reviews. The meteorological elements measured for the data set include, but are not limited to, daily maximum and minimum temperature, temperature at the time of observation, precipitation (i.e., rainfall and snow water equivalent), snowfall and snow depth. GHCN-Daily serves as the official archive for daily data from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Surface Network (GSN) and is particularly well suited for monitoring and assessment activities related to the frequency and magnitude of extremes. Sources for the GHCN-Daily data set include, but are not limited, to U.S. Cooperative Summary of the Day, U.S. Fort data, U.S. Climate Reference Network, Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, and numerous international sources.

Global Surface Summary of the Day is a product produced by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), and is derived from the synoptic/hourly observations contained in the Integrated Surface Hourly (ISH) dataset (DSI-3505). The latest daily summary data are normally available 1-2 days after the date-time of the observations used in the daily summaries, and over 9000 worldwide stations' data are available. Daily elements (as available) include mean values of temperature, dew point, sea level and station pressures, visibility, and wind speed plus maximum sustained wind speed and/or wind gusts, maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation amounts, snow depth, and indicators for occurrences of various weather elements. Historical data are generally available for 1929 to the present, with data from 1973 to the present being the most complete. Daily extremes and totals--maximum wind gust, precipitation amount, and snow depth-- only appear if the station reports the data sufficiently to provide a valid value. Therefore, these three elements appear less frequently than other values. Since these elements are derived from the original synoptic/hourly data as are reported and based on Greenwich Mean Time (GMT, 0000Z-2359Z), they often comprise a 24-hour period which includes a portion of the previous day (i.e., offset from local standard times).

The Observations map displays current and historical weather observations for six primary variables (maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, precipitation, snowfall, and snow depth). The source of the data is GHCN-Daily.

This zoomable map interface presents metadata for glaciers in the World Glacier Monitoring Service database. Within political units, users can browse monitored glaciers for their name, WGMS ID, type of monitoring, first survey year, total number of surveys, and the last year surveyed. Links enable users to download minimal data series or request full data series via email for each glacier.

The Global Hourly Summaries are simple indicators of observational normals which include climatic data summarizations and frequency distributions. The available summaries (mean January, July or annual) include: Ceiling-Visibility, Dew Point Statistics, Relative Humidity, Sky Cover, Sea-Level Pressure, Station Pressure, Temperature Statistics, and Wind-Speed Summaries. These typically are statistical analyses of station data over 5-, 10-, 20- or 30-year time periods. This dataset totaling over 350 gigabytes is comprised of 40 different types of weather observations with 20,000 stations worldwide. The National Climatic Data Center and the U.S. Navy developed these value added products in the form of hourly summaries from many of these observations, and these data are a subset of the Integrated Surface Hourly dataset (DSI-3505).

International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) Project (DSI-9637). The major constraint in improving scientific understanding of the observed trends and variability of tropical cyclone activity has been a lack of accurate, quality controlled best track data for all tropical cyclone basins globally. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center developed the IBTrACS project, which took the initial step of synthesizing and merging best track data from all official Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWCs) and the WMO Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers (RSMCs) who are responsible for developing and archiving best track data worldwide. The dataset contains the position, maximum sustained winds, minimum central pressure, and storm nature for every tropical cyclone globally at 6-hour intervals in UTC. Statistics from the merge are also provided (such as number of centers tracking the storm, range in pressure, median wind speed, etc.). The dataset period is from 1848 to the present with dataset updates performed semi-annually.

<p>Integrated Surface Data (ISD) (DSI-3505). The Integrated Surface Data (ISD) database is composed of worldwide surface weather observations from about 20,000 stations, collected and stored from sources such as the Automated Weather Network (AWN), the Global Telecommunications System (GTS), the National Weather Service's Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS), and data keyed from paper forms. Most digital observations are decoded either at the US Air Force 14th Weather Squadron or at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, NC or at operational centers and forwarded there. Each agency is responsible for data ingest, quality control, and customer support for surface climatological data. All data are stored in a single ASCII format as an archive for hourly and synoptic (3-hourly) weather observations. The data are sorted by station-year-month-day-hour-minute.</p>

ICOADS is the world's largest collection of marine surface in situ observations with 400+ million records for 1662 through the present. ICOADS is developed and maintained as a cooperative effort between NSF's National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA): specifically its Climate Diagnostics Center (CDC), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research Sciences (CIRES) of the University of Colorado, and NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC).

The GHCN-Daily was developed to meet the needs of climate analysis and monitoring studies that require data at a sub-monthly time resolution (e.g., assessments of the frequency of heavy rainfall, heat wave duration, etc.). It also serves as NCDCs sole source of U.S. Summary of the Day data, providing a diverse array of users in the public and private sector with weather and climate observations that meet needs from the local to national level. By bringing together contributions from dozens of national and international sources and combining historical with near real-time observations, this dataset helps users understand todays climate and how it impacts society while helping users prepare for weather and climate conditions in the future.

This easy-to-use exploration tool provides access to maps of over 100 environmental variables from NOAA's archive of satellite images, climate model results, and other observations. The site provides descriptions of what the maps show and links to the datasets from which they were produced. NOAA View has an excellent video tour and a clear Navigation Tips graphic to help users get started.

The tool shows one image at a time: users can zoom, pan, display lat/lon coordinates and data values, share links to specific scenes via URL or Web Mapping Service links, and download full resolution images or Google Earth files. Users can adjust sampling periods for many variables to view weekly, monthly, or yearly averages. Maps extend back in time to as early as 1880 and as recent as yesterday. Each day, NOAA View offers a True Color image of Earth from the previous day by 9:00 AM Eastern.

Annual Climatological Summary is a product derived from the Summary of the Month (DSI-3220) data set. This product contains monthly and annual summaries for over 8,000 U.S. locations. Major parameters include monthly mean maximum, minimum and average temperatures, monthly total precipitation and snowfall, heating and cooling degree days, number of days that temperatures and precipitation exceed thresholds, and extreme daily temperature and precipitation amounts.

Climate at a Glance offers a mapping interface to display data from the U.S. Climate Divisional Database. The tool offers near real-time analysis of monthly temperature and precipitation data across the contiguous U.S. Users can show monthly or yearly Values, Ranks, or Anomalies for Temperature, Precipitation, Heating days, Cooling days, and four drought indices. These records are available for National, Regional, Statewide, or Divisional extents.

Because these data are primarily intended for the study of climate variability and change, observations have been adjusted to account for the artificial effects introduced into the climate record by factors such as instrument changes, station relocation, observer practice changes and urbanization. Some of the more current data provided by the Climate at a Glance system are preliminary and may be modified after appropriate quality control has been performed. As a result, some values available on this site differ from the official observations.

U.S. Climate Indices are extracted from the National Climatic Data Center's (NCDC's) nClimDiv database. They provide access to current U.S. temperature, precipitation, and drought indices. Divisional indices are: Precipitation index, Palmer Drought Severity Index, Palmer Hydrological Drought Index, Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index, Temperature, Palmer Z Index, Cooling Degree Days, Heating Degree Days, and Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPI) for 1-month, 2-month, 3-month, 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month (SPI).

Climate Reference Network (CRN) (DSI-3286). The CRN data set containes hourly observations, made by an automated instrument package, of U.S. surface meteorological data at stations that are specifically included for their representation of the climate of the U.S. Each CRN station measures temperature and precipitation, wind speed at thermometer height, and solar radiation. Soil moisture and soil temperature are measured using sensors provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Data collection began in 2003.

GHCN (Global Historical Climatology Network)-Daily is a data set whose aim is to address the need for historical daily records over global land areas. Like its monthly counterpart (GHCN-Monthly), GHCN-Daily is a composite of climate records from numerous sources that were merged and then subjected to a suite of quality assurance reviews. The meteorological elements measured for the data set include, but are not limited to, daily maximum and minimum temperature, temperature at the time of observation, precipitation (i.e., rainfall and snow water equivalent), snowfall and snow depth. GHCN-Daily serves as the official archive for daily data from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Surface Network (GSN) and is particularly well suited for monitoring and assessment activities related to the frequency and magnitude of extremes. Sources for the GHCN-Daily data set include, but are not limited, to U.S. Cooperative Summary of the Day, U.S. Fort data, U.S. Climate Reference Network, Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, and numerous international sources.

U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data (DSI-3260). Data source is approximately 2,000 monthly U.S. weather stations and selected non-U.S. stations with the capability to measure precipitation at 15 minute intervals. Detaily total precipitation also included. Data archived from most states as far back as 1970 or 1971, and continues to the present.

U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data (DSI-3240). Data source is approximately 5,500 U.S. National Weather Service (NWS), airport, and cooperative stations in the U.S. and U.S. territories which measure hourly or daily precipitation accumulations. Earliest data availability varies considerably by state and region, ranging from 1900 to 1978 and continues to the present.

U.S. Local Climatological Data (DSI-3715). The Local Climatological Data file is produced from National Weather Service (NWS) first and second order stations and data are contained in monthly and annual publications. Monthly summaries include maximum, minimum, and average temperature, dew point temperature, station pressure, visibility, weather type, degree days (heating and cooling), precipitation, average wind speeds and extremes, sky cover, snowfall and snow depth, and other variables. The annual summary contains monthly and annual averages of the above climatological data for the current year and a table of normals, means, and extremes of these same data.

GIS U.S. Monthly Extremes is a web based product extracted from the digital dataset U.S. COOP Summary of the Month (DSI-3220). In any given year there are about 8,000 stations operating and recording as little as one parameter (precipitation), or several parameters. The earliest data are from 1831 and are organized by month. Data are updated on a monthly basis. Attributes included for the GIS application are COOP ID, WBAN ID, Station Name, State, Yea, Latitude, Longitude, Stations elevation, Precipitation and Temperature Extremes, and Snowfall/Snow Depth Extremes.

The GHCN-Daily was developed to meet the needs of climate analysis and monitoring studies that require data at a sub-monthly time resolution (e.g., assessments of the frequency of heavy rainfall, heat wave duration, etc.). It also serves as NCDCs sole source of U.S. Summary of the Day data, providing a diverse array of users in the public and private sector with weather and climate observations that meet needs from the local to national level. By bringing together contributions from dozens of national and international sources and combining historical with near real-time observations, this dataset helps users understand todays climate and how it impacts society while helping users prepare for weather and climate conditions in the future.

The National Integrated Drought Information System's (NIDIS's) North American Drought Monitor (NADM) is a copperative effort between drought experts in Canada, Mexico, and the United States to monitor drought across the continent. Drought indices are used to detect and measure droughts, but different indices measure drought in different ways, and no single index works under all circumstances. The NADM program was designed to overcome past limitations with the objective of providing operational assessments of drought across the continent with monthly operational DM maps and discussions made available to the general public.

NWS Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Level II & III digital data sets (DSI-6500 and DSI-7000, respectively) archive data from over 150 Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D0 sites throughout the U.S. and overseas locations. The NEXRAD Level II data contain three meteorological base data quantities: reflectivity, mean radial velocity, and spectrum width, and are recorded at all NWS and most AWS and FAA WSR 88-D sites. From the Level II quantities, computer processing generates numerous meteorological analysis products known as Level III data including baseline reflectivity and velocity, vertical integrated liquid, VAD wind profile, and precipitation products. Overlay products also give information on certain parameters including storm structure, hail, mesocyclone, tornadic vortex signature, and storm tracking information for identified storm cells. Data are available from June 1991 to 1 day from present.

U.S. Historical Daily Snowfall provides a dynamic map of stations-based daily snowfall amounts by day or accumulations of up to 15 days. Snowfall totals are obtained from the U.S. Daily Surface Data beginning winter season of 2006-2007.

U.S. Historical Monthly & Seasonal Snowfall provides a map of station-based monthly or seasonal snowfall amount obtained from the U.S. Monthly Summaries Data. Some data are available as early as 1886.

U.S. Station Normals (Annual, Monthly, Daily, Hourly) is digital data set archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The climatological normals presented in this data set are based on the 30-year period 1981-2010.

This tool generates time series graphs of Temperature, Precipitation, Heating Degree Days, Cooling Degree Days, and four drought indices from the U.S. Climate Divisional Database. Users select spatial extents as large as the entire contiguous United States and as small as a city within it (data are available for almost 200 selected cities). Time scales range from 1 month to 60 months, and include functions such as Year to date and Previous 12 months. Users can customize the time series graphs by selecting the base period, including a trend line showing change over a decade or a century, or showing a statistically smoothed version of the data. Users can zoom and pan on the interactive graphs.

This tool lets users check how conditions in the contiguous United States over a selected time period rank in the historical record. Rankings for Temperature, Precipitation, Degree Days, and Palmer (Drought) indices are available for the contiguous U.S., entire states, climate divisions, and selected regions for periods ranging from 1 to 60 months or for Year-to-Date. Data and statistics are available from January 1895 through the most recent monthly State of the Climate report.

Gulf Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts is composed of data from coastal managers and scientists with a preliminary look at sea level rise and coastal flooding imapcts in the United States. Data and maps provided are avilable at different scale levels in an effort to assist with gauging trends and prioritizing actions for different scenarios.

The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is producing a new regional snowfall index; the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI). Like the Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS), RSI uses snowfall and population to create an index that puts snowstorms and their societal impacts into historical perspective. However, RSI only uses snowfall and population information within a particular region (a collection of states) to calculate an index. NESIS uses snowfall and population information from the eastern two thirds of the United States and is therefore a quasi-national index. It is called "Northeast" because some of the constants in the algorithm used to calculate NESIS are specifically calibrated to the northeast; a region with abundant snowfall and a large population. The constants in the RSI algorithms are specific to the region in which an index is being calculated. Therefore, RSI is a true regional index.