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Reports and Resources (50)
National Academies release two reports on climate intervention
Climate interventions, aka "geoengineering," refers to deliberate, large-scale manipulation of Earth’s climate intended to counteract human-caused climate change. The National Academies Press has released two reports that assess the potential impacts, benefits, and costs of two different proposed classes of climate intervention: carbon dioxide removal and reflecting sunlight. Neither of these types of interventions should take priority over mitigation and adaptation, the reports stress.
The Great American Adaptation Road Trip
After visiting more than 30 communities preparing for climate change across the United States, the Georgetown Climate Center released a report identifying six big lessons from ongoing adaptation work across the country.
Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery: Next Generation
The American Planning Association's Hazards Planning Center worked with FEMA to develop Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery: Next Generation. This updated manual offers a no-nonsense explanation of the benefits and limitations of planning for unpredictable events.
Navigating to New Shores: Seizing the Future for Sustainable & Resilient U.S. Freshwater Resources
Based on 6 years of work, The Johnson Foundation examines challenges associated with quality, availability, & resilience of U.S. freshwater resources due to climate change, aging infrastructure, & extreme events.
Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts
This new National Research Council report reviews coastal risk-reduction strategies and levels of protection that have been used along the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts to reduce the impacts of flooding associated with storm surges. The report evaluates their effectiveness in terms of economic return, protection of life safety, and minimization of environmental effects.
Preparing Our Communities for Climate Impacts: Recommendations for Federal Action
The Georgetown Climate Center has released a report outlining 100 recommendations to help improve federal programs and their ability to prepare for climate change. The new report--Preparing Our Communities for Climate Impacts: Recommendations for Federal Action--will inform the White House's State, Local and Tribal Leaders Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience.
NJADAPT is a collaborative effort consisting of scientists and data managers in academia, government, the private sector, and the NGO community who have developed a strategic plan for a New Jersey platform to host and apply climate science and impacts data. This effort has been supported by the New Jersey Recovery Fund, the New Jersey Coastal Management Program, and NOAA.
'Nuisance Flooding' an Increasing Problem as Coastal Sea Levels Rise
This technical report from NOAA looks at more than 60 years of coastal water level and local elevation data, analyzing sea level rise and nuisance flood frequency changes around the United States.
Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change
On April 15 in Berlin, Germany, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approved and released Working Group III's Fifth Assessment Report - a comprehensive assessment of all relevant options for mitigating climate change through limiting or preventing greenhouse gas emissions, as well as activities that remove them from the atmosphere.
Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability
On March 31 in Yokohama, Japan, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approved and released Working Group II's Summary for Policymakers and the underlying scientific and technical assessment.
Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities
This Technical Input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment examines vulnerabilities of infrastructures and urban systems to extreme weather and other events associated with climate change.
Navigating Change: Hawaii's Approach to Adaptation
A report based on the Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) was recently presented to the President's Task Force for Climate Preparedness and Resilience. The report examines climate change impacts in Hawaii and also assesses the adaptive capacity of the Pacific Island communities.
Sensitivity Study Helps Salt Lake City Plan for the Future
A new study published in the journal Earth Interactions has found that rising temperatures challenge Salt Lake City’s water supply. The research shows that every degree Fahrenheit of warming in the Salt Lake City region could mean a 1.8 to 6.5 percent drop in the annual flow of streams that provide water to the city. The sensitivity study aimed to help the city, and others in the Intermountain West, plan for the future.
NCDC Releases Latest Regional Climate Impacts and Outlooks Reports
In late December, NOAA's National Climatic Data Center and its partners released regional climate impact assessments for the first quarter of 2014. The reports discuss the major climate events during the past three months and contain historical seasonal assessments as well as future climate outlooks.
USC Seagrant Outlines L.A.'s Vulnerability to Future Sea Level Rise
In anticipation of rising sea levels, a team from the University of Southern California Sea Grant partnered with the city of Los Angeles to gauge the impact of rising tides on local communities and infrastructure in order to protect at-risk assets through proactive planning and early identification of adaptation measures.
U.S. Submits 2014 Climate Action Report to UNFCCC
The U.S. Department of State has submitted its 2014 Climate Action Report to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The report details actions the United States is taking domestically and internationally to mitigate, adapt to, and assist others in addressing climate change.
National Academies Report: Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change
Climate is changing, but how quickly? Will the changes be gradual, allowing natural systems and societal infrastructure to adjust in a timely fashion? Or will some of the changes be more abrupt, changing so fast that orderly adaptation is not possible? This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on potential abrupt changes to the ocean, atmosphere, ecosystems, and high latitude areas, and identifies key research and monitoring needs.
New York City updates sustainability plans with PlaNYC
In the wake of Sandy’s devastation, the city of New York announced PlaNYC – a long-term sustainability plan based on the latest climate science. The report includes ideas on how to rebuild the communities affected by the 2012 storm and how to increase resilience and infrastructure of buildings citywide in order to protect against future extreme events.
Preparing the U.S. for the Impacts of Climate Change
On November 1, President Obama issued an Executive Order to prepare the nation for the impacts of climate change by undertaking actions to enhance climate preparedness and resilience.
U.S. Energy Sector Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and Extreme Weather
The U.S. Department of Energy released this report in July 2013 as part of the President's efforts to support planning for climate change & U.S. energy security. The report examines current and potential climate-related impacts on the energy sector and identifies activities to address these challenges.
The President's Climate Action Plan
In a speech at Georgetown University on June 25, President Obama announced a series of executive actions to reduce carbon pollution, prepare the United States for the impacts of climate change, and lead international efforts to address global climate change.
Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States
A part of the 2013 U.S. National Climate Assessment, this book gives an overview of the past, present, and projected future of the southwest region's climate, emphasizing new information and understandings since publication of the previous national assessment in 2009. It examines what climate and climate change mean for the health and well-being of human populations and the environment. The book looks at climate's effects on the region's watersheds and ecosystems, links between supply and demand of natural resources, and impacts on key sectors — such as water, agriculture, energy, and transportation. It also includes information on responses and preparedness to reduce vulnerabilities and improve resilience to extremes of weather and climate.
Billion Dollar Weather & Climate Disasters
According to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, 2012 saw 11 climate and weather disaster events, each with losses exceeding $1 billion in damages. This makes 2012 the 2nd costliest year since 1980, with a total of more than $110 billion in damages. Most of last year's damages came from Hurricane Sandy and the widespread drought. NCDC is the nation's scorekeeper in terms of placing extreme climate and weather events into historical perspective in this series of annual reports, dating back to 1980.
Climate Change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and Impacts
Climate Change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and Impacts is a report developed by the Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) aimed at assessing the state of climate knowledge, impacts, and adaptive capacity of Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands.
Coastal Climate Adaptation Resources
An archive of adaptation resources such as guidebooks, tools, and state and local plans as well as a blog about coastal concerns by NOAA's Coastal Service Center. Users can parse resources by states or category.
NOAA Coastal and Ocean Climate Applications funding
The Coastal and Ocean Climate Applications (COCA) program addresses the needs of specific decision makers grappling with pressing climate-related issues in coastal and marine environments. This program strengthens initiatives to support interdisciplinary applications research aimed at addressing climate-related challenges in coastal communities as well as coastal and marine ecosystems.
Grants are available annually for researchers and decision makers.
U.S. Climate Change Webinars
Southwest Climate Change Network
The Southwest Climate Change Network is a virtual community for scientists, other experts, decision makers, and the public to share information on climate change and collaborate on solutions. The site provides static and dynamic content and encourages readers to engage with each other and the scientists behind the site and ask questions about what matters to them when it comes to climate in the Southwest.
Alaska Climate Webinar Archives
The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy has an archive of all its webinars on a variety of climate issues in the Alaska and the Arctic. The webinar series is also ongoing with new speakers and topics scheduled regularly.
Storm Data Resource Guide
This guide from NOAA's Coastal Service Center provides links to resources for managing the impacts of hurricanes and tropical storms, and helps users locate data to use before, during, and after a storm. The site also highlights geographic information system (GIS) data layers useful for planners and emergency responders.
2013 Draft National Climate Assessment
Global climate is changing, and this is apparent across the U.S. in a wide range of observations. Rising temperatures, changes in precipitation and extreme events and their causes and impacts on society and the environment are chronicled in the 2013 National Climate Assessment. A team of over 240 experts compiled the report, which is open for public comment through April 12, 2013.
Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series
The Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series, published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, gives a straightforward overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategies that local governments can use to achieve economic, environmental, social, and human health benefits. The series covers energy efficiency, transportation, community planning and design, solid waste and materials management, and renewable energy.
Sustainable Energy and Atmospheric Sciences Seminars
A monthly seminar series designed to enhance communication and collaboration among scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, and others in the community working on issues related to renewable energy. This seminar series brings together those who can combine their knowledge and expertise to solve the problems that have slowed the integration of renewable energy sources into the U.S. electric grid.
Maine's Climate Future
A report that considers past change over geologic time, recent evidence of accelerated rates of change, and the implications of continued climate change in Maine during the 21st century as a result of greenhouse gas emissions and their associated pollutants.
America’s Climate Choices
This is the final report in the America’s Climate Choices series. It includes analysis by scientists, engineers, economists, business leaders and policy experts on how to address climate change in the United States. The report advocates for an iterative risk management approach to climate change and using strong federal climate policies to support and enhance existing local, state and private sector efforts. It identifies four key areas policymakers should focus on.
Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation
The Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation, released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in May 2011, assesses existing literature on the future potential of renewable energy for the mitigation of climate change. It covers the six most important renewable energy technologies, as well as their integration into present and future energy systems.
The Drought-Ready Communities pilot project culminated in summer 2010 with a Guide to Community Drought Preparedness that communities throughout the U.S. can use to understand and reduce their drought risk.The process outlined in the Guide is broad-based, recognizing that drought creates problems that go beyond the scope of what water suppliers alone can address. With that in mind, the guide provides worksheets, planning tips, and case studies to help communities hone in on processes and solutions to drought.
Adapting to Climate Change: A Planning Guide for State Coastal Managers
A guide from NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management to help coastal managers develop and implement adaptation plans in the face of climate change. The guide is designed to help U.S. state and territorial coastal managers develop and implement adaptation plans to reduce the impacts and consequences of climate change and climate variability. It was written in response to a request from state coastal managers for guidance from NOAA on adaptation planning in the coastal zone.
Technical Considerations for Use of Geospatial Data in Sea Level Change Mapping and Assessment
Guidance for federal and state agencies and coastal planners for conducting sea level change assessments and mapping. The report is intended to provide technical guidance to agencies, practitioners, and coastal decision-makers seeking to use and/or collect geospatial data to assist with sea level change assessments and mapping products.
Building a Resilient Coast: Maine Confronts Climate Change
A five-part documentary on the concerns and interests of Maine coastal residents regarding climate change, published by Maine Sea Grant in partnership with Oregon Sea Grant. The project had several objectives: exploring how climate variability and coastal hazards are affecting the Maine coast and how these relate to coastal development; encouraging collaboration among decision-makers and coastal property owners; and discovering the barriers to taking action to prepare for or mitigate climate-related impacts.
Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change
Much of the nation’s experience to date in managing and protecting its people, resources, and infrastructure is based on the historic record of climate variability during a period of relatively stable climate. This report from the America’s Climate Choices suite of studies concludes that adaptation to climate change calls for a new paradigm--one that considers a range of possible future climate conditions and associated impacts, some well outside the realm of past experience.
Transportation's Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions
This U.S. Department of Transportation report, submitted to the U.S. Congress in April 2010, evaluates a range of strategies for reducing greenhouse gases from transportation including: introducing low-carbon fuels; increasing vehicle fuel economy; improving transportation system efficiency; aligning transportation planning and investments to achieve GHG reduction objectives; and pricing carbon.
Assessing Economic Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation
Reliable estimates of the costs and benefits to the U.S. economy for various emissions reduction and adaptation strategies are critical to federal climate change R&D portfolio planning and investment decisions. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Academies organized a workshop to consider these issues. The workshop participants discussed three dimensions: policy, analysis, and economics. They focused on (i) policymakers' informational needs; (ii) models and other analytic approaches to meet these needs; (iii) important economic considerations, including equity and discounting; and (iv) opportunities to enhance analytical capabilities and better inform policy.
Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (2009)
Climate changes are underway in the United States and are projected to grow. Consequently, crops and livestock production will be increasingly challenged and threats to human health will increase. These are two key findings presented in this 2009 assessment report by the U.S. Global Change Research Program. The report gives an overview of climate-related issues and impacts for seven geographical regions and seven sectors of society.
Shoreline Impacts, Setbacks Policy and Sea Level Rise
A review of local laws related to sea level rise for shoreline setback policy, prepared by Center for Island Climate Adaptation and Policy. Though the report was commissioned in response to a proposed law for Hawaii, the review of laws across the country make this guide applicable for coastal communities across the United States.
Coastal Sensitivity to Sea Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region
Global sea level is rising at an accelerating rate. This report examines the implications of rising sea level, with a focus on the U.S. mid-Atlantic region, where storm impacts occur and there is a large extent of critical habitat, high population densities, and infrastructure in low-lying areas.
Past Climate Variability and Change in the Arctic and at High Latitudes
Over the past 30 years, average temperatures in the Arctic have increased at almost twice the rate of the planet as a whole. Such temperature changes have been accompanied by shrinking sea ice, melting ice and permafrost on land, and widespread impacts to land and ocean ecosystems.
Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate
An assessment in the state of knowledge concerning changes in weather and climate extremes in North America and U.S. territories. Changes in extreme weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate.
Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure ― Gulf Coast Study
As global temperatures increase, sea levels rise, and weather patterns change, the stewards of our Nation's infrastructure are challenged to consider how these changes may affect the country's roads, airports, rail, transit systems, and ports. This study focuses on potential impacts of climate change on human infrastructure in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.
Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems
A review of impacts of global climate change on three broad dimensions of the human condition: human health, human settlements, and human welfare. This report examines opportunities for adaptation and associated recommendations for addressing data gaps and near- and long-term research goals.
Decision Support Tools (21)
U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit
In response to the President's Executive Order 13653, a NOAA-led U.S. federal agency partnership released the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit to provide tools, information, & scientific expertise to help communities & businesses build resilience to climate-related impacts & extreme events.
State Adaptation Progress Tracker
Georgetown Climate Center's new online tool tracks what steps each state has made towards implementing climate change preparedness plans. Now, anyone will be able to quickly determine how much progress their state is making and decision-makers will be able to learn from innovative examples of actions other states are taking.
New Jersey Coastal Flood Exposure Mapper
Help jump-start your community discussions about hazard impacts with maps of your area that show people, places, and assets exposed to coastal flooding. The map data and the discussions spurred from these maps are valuable and applicable to a variety of community planning processes—from comprehensive land-use to hazards mitigation and conservation planning.
The New Jersey FloodMapper is a user-friendly visualization tool for local communities who need to make decisions concerning flooding hazards and sea level rise. This tool should be used to promote enhanced preparedness and land use planning decisions with considerations for possible future conditions.
USGS Coastal Change Hazards Portal
The U.S. Geological Survey's Coastal Change Hazards portal offers interactive access to coastal change science and data for our nation’s coasts. The portal is designed to aid decision-makers, organizations, or the general public make decisions that involve emergency preparedness, ecosystem restoration, and where and how to develop coastal areas. Anyone interested can explore the interactive portal to find information about historical or future potential storm impacts for a specific coastal area.
Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy
President Obama’s Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force released a rebuilding strategy that outlines a set of principles and recommendations to guide recovery and rebuilding efforts in the wake of Sandy. The Strategy will help ensure communities are better able to withstand and recover from future storms.
The PacificIslandsClimate.org (PIKO) website is a gateway to a broad range of information related to climate in the Pacific Islands. PIKO includes summaries of programs, projects, and activities, as well as data, information products, and services.
Gulf of Mexico Climate Outreach Community of Practice
The NOAA Gulf of Mexico Regional Team and the Sea Grant Programs from the Gulf States support a Community of Practice (CoP) for long-term engagement with coastal communities addressing climate change. This CoP is a group of professionals working together to enhance climate literacy in the region and to develop and implement strategies for adapting to sea level rise.
Red River Basin Decision Information Network
A suite of web-based tools developed for the Red River Basin in response to the 1997 floods and designed for decision makers and the general public.
TreeFlow is a comprehensive web resource for tree-ring reconstructions of streamflow and climate, providing easy access to reconstruction data as well as information about how the data were developed, and can be used. Originally developed by researchers at the Climate Assessment for the Southwest, TreeFlow has a growing collection of tree ring constructions for river basins throughout the Western United States.
The WestMap toolbox is an interactive web-based interface developed by the Climate Assessment for the Southwest in response to findings that stakeholders in the Western U.S. from a wide range of sectors require new forms of data, intuitive tools, and support resources to understand climate variability and to be able to incorporate this understanding into specific planning and management efforts. The toolbox includes a lengthy time series of fine-scale (~1-4 km) gridded climate data that can be aggregated to user-specified domains as well as helpful climate education information.
Cal-Adapt is a web-based climate adaptation planning tool developed in part by the University of California, Berkeley's Geospatial Innovation Facility for the State of California. Cal-Adapt allows users to identify potential climate change risks in specific geographic areas throughout the state. Users can either query by location, or click on an interactive map to explore what climate impacts are projected to occur in their area of interest.
Arizona DroughtWatch is a tool designed by the Climate Assessment for the Southwest to collect, summarize, and display timely observations of drought impacts across Arizona. The tool was developed to support drought monitoring efforts spearheaded by county-level Local Drought Impact Groups organized in support of the Arizona State Drought Preparedness Plan.
Paleoclimate Reconstructions for the Southwest
The longest instrumental climate records date back only about 100 years in the Southwest, a timeframe that likely does not capture the full range of climate variability. Extending the record to earlier times provides additional information on the length and severity of past droughts. This tool created by the Climate Assessment for the Southwest allows users to visualize the climate variability during the past 1,000 years or so in each climate division in Arizona and New Mexico.
Historical Hurricane Tracks
This interactive mapping application easily searches and displays global tropical cyclone data. Users are able to query storms by the storm name, Zip Code, city, state, geographic region, or latitude/longitude coordinates. Custom queries can track storms of interest and allow for data extraction and download.
C-CAP Land Cover Atlas
An online data viewer from NOAA's Coastal Services Center providing user-friendly access to regional land cover and land cover change information. The Land Cover Atlas eliminates the need for desktop geographic information system software, or advanced technical expertise, by processing Coastal Change Analysis Program data for the user and providing easy access. The tool summarizes general change trends (such as forest losses or new development) and can highlight specific changes of interest (salt marsh losses to open water, or evergreen forest losses to development, for instance).
CanVis is a visualization program used to see potential impacts from coastal development or sea level rise. Users can download background pictures and insert the objects (hotel, house, marina, or other objects) of their choosing. The free PC-based software is used by municipalities to brainstorm new ideas and policies, undertake project planning, and make presentations.
Impervious Surface Analysis Tool
The Impervious Surface Analysis Tool (ISAT), which is available as a geographic information system extension, is used to calculate the percentage of impervious surface area within user-selected geographic areas (e.g, watersheds, municipalities, subdivisions). In small watersheds, the correlation between an increase in impervious surfaces and a decrease in water quality has been well established. People use the information derived from ISAT to predict how different management scenarios might impact local water quality.
U.S. Hazards Outlooks
A summary of forecast and hazards—including extreme heat & cold, flood & drought, winds and severe weather—for 3-7 days as well as 8-14 days into the future.
Sea Level Rise Viewer
A map-based decision support tool for coastal managers and scientists to plan for different sea level rise scenarios and potential coastal flooding impacts.
Coastal County Snapshots
Coastal County Snapshots turn complex data into easy-to-understand stories, complete with charts and graphs. Users select a coastal county of interest and the website does the rest, providing information that can help communities become more resilient to coastal hazards.
Local officials can use the snapshots as a planning tool to assess their county’s resilience to flooding and understand the benefits provided by natural resources. The handouts generated by the snapshots can be a helpful educational tool when working with governing bodies and citizen groups.Current topics include flood exposure, wetland benefits, and ocean and Great Lakes jobs.
Fact Sheets (4)
Reducing the Nation's Vulnerability to Extreme Weather & Climate
NOAA is helping people prepare and protect their homes, communities, and businesses from extreme climate- and weather-related impacts.
Preparing for Drought & Water Resource Challenges
All regions and economic sectors in the U.S. depend on adequate and reliable water supplies. This briefing sheet describes how NOAA is working to help the nation understand, prepare for, and respond to drought, flooding, and other water resource challenges.
Preparing for Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding
The U.S. has one of the world's largest and most diverse coastal zones. Climate variability and change present real threats to our coasts. NOAA is working with partners to build climate-smart coastal communities.
Toward a Climate Smart Nation
Americans' health, security, and economic wellbeing are tied to climate and weather. This briefing sheet describes how NOAA is leveraging its climate science and services to help the nation prepare for the impacts of climate variability and change.
Data Products (11)
University of Hawaii Sea Level Center
The University of Hawaii Sea Level Center collects, processes, distributes, and analyzes in situ tide gauge data from around the world in support of climate research. UHSLC scientists conduct research on global sea level rise, sea level variations associated with ocean circulation, tidal processes, extreme sea level events & coastal inundation.
This data product provides high-resolution six-hourly, daily, and monthly wind speeds over the world’s oceans at 10-meter height. Data are available from 1987 to the present.
National Solar Radiation Database
The National Solar Radiation Database contains 30 years (1961-1990) of solar radiation and supplementary meteorological data, and hourly solar radiation and meteorological data for 237 National Weather Service sites in the United States, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Also includes maps of the monthly amounts of solar power that could be generated with various solar collectors.
Surface Radiation Budget Network
Seven stations continuously collecting solar, infrared, meteorology, and ultraviolet radiation data are located in climatologically diverse regions of the U.S.—including Colorado, Illinois, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, Pennsylvania, and South Dakota.
Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) Network
Solar and ultraviolet radiation (UV) data recorded from 1995-2001 for nine sites located in California, Florida, New Mexico, North Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin.
Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) Solar Energy Forecast
The LAPS system produces rapidly updated, high-resolution analyses and forecasts of solar radiation. The cloud analysis uses satellite, METARs, radar, aircraft, and model first guess information to produce an hourly 3-D field of cloud fraction, cloud liquid, and cloud ice. The cloud analysis and satellite data together are used to produce a gridded analysis of total solar radiation.
Monthly editions contain station daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation. Some stations provide daily snowfall, snow depth, evaporation, and soil temperature data. Each issue also contains monthly summaries for heating and cooling degree days (65 degrees Fbase). The July issue also contains monthly heating degree days and snow data for the preceding July through June. The annual issue contains monthly and annual averages of temperature, precipitation, temperature extremes, freeze data, soil temperatures, evaporation, and a recap of monthly cooling degree days.
Local Climatological Data
A monthly summary from major airport weather stations that includes a daily account of temperature extremes, degree days, precipitation and winds. Also included are the hourly precipitation and abbreviated 3-hourly weather observations.
Regional Snowfall Index
NOAA produces the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two-thirds of the United States. The RSI ranks snowstorm impacts on a scale from 1 to 5, similar to the Fujita scale for tornadoes or the Saffir-Simpson scale for hurricanes.
U.S. Snow Climatology
Here you can access snowfall and snow depth statistics for several thousand non-airport stations in the National Weather Service (NWS) Cooperative (COOP) Network across the contiguous U.S. and Alaska. Data are available for daily, monthly, and seasonal snowfall and snow depth totals, which are useful in economic and engineering decision-making, and provide the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) with an objective basis for declaring federal snow disasters.
NOAA's National Climatic Data Center issues monthly storm data containing a chronological listing, by states, of storm occurrences and unusual weather phenomena. Reports contain information on storm paths, deaths, injuries, and property damage. An "Outstanding storms of the month" section highlights severe weather events with photographs, illustrations, and narratives. Users may also search the NCDC Storm Event database to find various types of storms recorded in your county or use other selection criteria as desired.