Reports and Resources (101)
Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery: Next Generation
The American Planning Association's Hazards Planning Center worked with FEMA to develop Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery: Next Generation. This updated manual offers a no-nonsense explanation of the benefits and limitations of planning for unpredictable events.
UN Climate Change Learning Partnership Releases Learning Resources Guides on Climate Change Science
The UN Climate Change Learning Partnership released two resource guides to help people understand the science of climate change. The two guides provide a tour of the best & most relevant resources on climate change science.
Climate-Smart Conservation: Putting Adaption Principles into Practice
This new report by the National Wildlife Federation looks at how climate change is affecting the nation’s wildlife & habitats, & addresses how natural resource managers need to prepare for and adapt to these unprecedented changes.
Mapping the River Ahead
As the climate changes, critical challenges face water managers, farmers, public agencies and conservationists in the Colorado River Basin. A new report by Carpe Diem West Academy, in partnership with the Center for Natural Resources and Environmental Policy, University of Montana, documents the concerns of some Colorado River thought leaders and their ideas about potential solutions and paths ahead.
Navigating Change: Hawaii's Approach to Adaptation
A report based on the Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) was recently presented to the President's Task Force for Climate Preparedness and Resilience. The report examines climate change impacts in Hawaii and also assesses the adaptive capacity of the Pacific Island communities.
Sensitivity Study Helps Salt Lake City Plan for the Future
A new study published in the journal Earth Interactions has found that rising temperatures challenge Salt Lake City’s water supply. The research shows that every degree Fahrenheit of warming in the Salt Lake City region could mean a 1.8 to 6.5 percent drop in the annual flow of streams that provide water to the city. The sensitivity study aimed to help the city, and others in the Intermountain West, plan for the future.
NOAA Releases Annual Climate Report
NOAA's National Climatic Data Center has released its climate report for 2013. According to the annual report, last year was warmer and wetter than average for the contiguous U.S. and 2013 marked the 21st wettest year of record for the nation and the wettest since 2009.
NCDC Releases Latest Regional Climate Impacts and Outlooks Reports
In late December, NOAA's National Climatic Data Center and its partners released regional climate impact assessments for the first quarter of 2014. The reports discuss the major climate events during the past three months and contain historical seasonal assessments as well as future climate outlooks.
USC Seagrant Outlines L.A.'s Vulnerability to Future Sea Level Rise
In anticipation of rising sea levels, a team from the University of Southern California Sea Grant partnered with the city of Los Angeles to gauge the impact of rising tides on local communities and infrastructure in order to protect at-risk assets through proactive planning and early identification of adaptation measures.
U.S. Submits 2014 Climate Action Report to UNFCCC
The U.S. Department of State has submitted its 2014 Climate Action Report to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The report details actions the United States is taking domestically and internationally to mitigate, adapt to, and assist others in addressing climate change.
New York City updates sustainability plans with PlaNYC
In the wake of Sandy’s devastation, the city of New York announced PlaNYC – a long-term sustainability plan based on the latest climate science. The report includes ideas on how to rebuild the communities affected by the 2012 storm and how to increase resilience and infrastructure of buildings citywide in order to protect against future extreme events.
Drought Resilience Partnership formed under Climate Action Plan
Under the Climate Action Plan, the White House launched the National Drought Resilience Partnership on November 1. The partnership will make it easier for communities to find drought assistance and preparedness information by promoting partnership and information-sharing across government.
Preparing the U.S. for the Impacts of Climate Change
On November 1, President Obama issued an Executive Order to prepare the nation for the impacts of climate change by undertaking actions to enhance climate preparedness and resilience.
Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis
On September 27, 2013, Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented its report to member governments for approval and acceptance. The report is the first of four that will make up the IPCC's 5th Assessment.
Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate
According to a new National Climate Assessment report, the nation's valuable ocean ecosystems and marine resources are being affected by a changing climate. These impacts are expected to increase in coming years, putting marine resources — and the people and economies that depend on them — at risk.
Climate Sensitivity of the Nation's Estuaries
The United States' 28 National Estuarine Research Reserves (NERR) are experiencing negative effects of human and climate-related stressors, according to a new report from NOAA's National Ocean Service. This is the first national-scale climate sensitivity analysis of estuaries to help coastal managers protect the health of estuaries.
The President's Climate Action Plan
In a speech at Georgetown University on June 25, President Obama announced a series of executive actions to reduce carbon pollution, prepare the United States for the impacts of climate change, and lead international efforts to address global climate change.
Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States
A part of the 2013 U.S. National Climate Assessment, this book gives an overview of the past, present, and projected future of the southwest region's climate, emphasizing new information and understandings since publication of the previous national assessment in 2009. It examines what climate and climate change mean for the health and well-being of human populations and the environment. The book looks at climate's effects on the region's watersheds and ecosystems, links between supply and demand of natural resources, and impacts on key sectors — such as water, agriculture, energy, and transportation. It also includes information on responses and preparedness to reduce vulnerabilities and improve resilience to extremes of weather and climate.
Metadata Access Tool for Climate and Health (MATCH)
The U.S. Global Change Research Program recently launched the Metadata Access Tool for Climate and Health (MATCH). The tool offers centralized access to metadata about thousands of government-held datasets related to human health, the environment, and climate science for researchers and decision makers. MATCH is easily searchable and browsable by topic, keyword, and region, allowing users to quickly find resources of interest and relevance, including monitoring and surveillance datasets, early warning systems, and tools for characterizing climate-related human health impacts.
Billion Dollar Weather & Climate Disasters
According to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, 2012 saw 11 climate and weather disaster events, each with losses exceeding $1 billion in damages. This makes 2012 the 2nd costliest year since 1980, with a total of more than $110 billion in damages. Most of last year's damages came from Hurricane Sandy and the widespread drought. NCDC is the nation's scorekeeper in terms of placing extreme climate and weather events into historical perspective in this series of annual reports, dating back to 1980.
Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership
This partnership has developed a detailed strategic plan to collaboratively improve climate knowledge among the region’s students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures.
Pacific ENSO Update
The Pacific ENSO Update is a bulletin of the Pacific El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Applications Climate Center, providing information on climate variability for the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands. This newsletter is intended to supply information for the benefit of those involved in such climate-sensitive sectors as civil defense, resource management, and developmental planning in the various jurisdictions of the islands.
The Island Climate Update
The Island Climate Update is a monthly summary of the climate in the tropical South Pacific islands, with an outlook for the coming months, to assist in dissemination of climate information in the Pacific region. This bulletin is a multi-national project with collaboration from a number of Pacific nations and support from various organizations.
Climate Change in the Pacific: Scientific Assessment and New Research
This is a rigorously researched, peer-reviewed scientific assessment of the climate of the Western Pacific region. Building on the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this two-volume publication represents a comprehensive resource on the climate of the Pacific.
Climate Change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and Impacts
Climate Change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and Impacts is a report developed by the Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) aimed at assessing the state of climate knowledge, impacts, and adaptive capacity of Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands.
Coastal Climate Adaptation Resources
An archive of adaptation resources such as guidebooks, tools, and state and local plans as well as a blog about coastal concerns by NOAA's Coastal Service Center. Users can parse resources by states or category.
NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Service Center Publications
A regularly updated database of reports, theses, working papers, and more written by PIFSC staff and collaborators.
NOAA Coastal and Ocean Climate Applications funding
The Coastal and Ocean Climate Applications (COCA) program addresses the needs of specific decision makers grappling with pressing climate-related issues in coastal and marine environments. This program strengthens initiatives to support interdisciplinary applications research aimed at addressing climate-related challenges in coastal communities as well as coastal and marine ecosystems.
Grants are available annually for researchers and decision makers.
U.S. Climate Change Webinars
NOAA Sectoral Applications Research Program funding
The Sectoral Applications Research Program (SARP) supports interdisciplinary research to advance understanding of how climate variability and change affect key socio-economic sectors, and promotes the application of this new knowledge in climate-related decisions. SARP works with scientists and decision makers (e.g., resource managers and policy leaders) to develop new tools and methodologies that they can incorporate into decision-making scenarios. The goal is to help decision makers better prepare for and respond to climate-related impacts. SARP’s current foci are water resource management initiatives for coping with drought, and extreme event preparedness.
Grants are available annually for researchers and decision makers.
Climate Change and Marine Protected Areas
Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Climate Summit
Reports from the 2008, 2010, and 2013 summits focused on communication and natural resource management of coastal issues on Californiaís north-central coast.
Southwest Climate Change Network
The Southwest Climate Change Network is a virtual community for scientists, other experts, decision makers, and the public to share information on climate change and collaborate on solutions. The site provides static and dynamic content and encourages readers to engage with each other and the scientists behind the site and ask questions about what matters to them when it comes to climate in the Southwest.
Southwest Climate Outlook
The Climate Assessment for the Southwest puts out monthly outlooks for the region. These outlooks include a look at last month's temperature and precipitation data, the current state of El Niño/La Niña and reservoir levels, and forecasts for temperature, precipitation, and streamflow. Additional seasonal sections of the outlook include wildland fire and snowpack updates. Archives are also available online.
Storm Data Resource Guide
This guide from NOAA's Coastal Service Center provides links to resources for managing the impacts of hurricanes and tropical storms, and helps users locate data to use before, during, and after a storm. The site also highlights geographic information system (GIS) data layers useful for planners and emergency responders.
2013 Draft National Climate Assessment
Global climate is changing, and this is apparent across the U.S. in a wide range of observations. Rising temperatures, changes in precipitation and extreme events and their causes and impacts on society and the environment are chronicled in the 2013 National Climate Assessment. A team of over 240 experts compiled the report, which is open for public comment through April 12, 2013.
Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series
The Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series, published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, gives a straightforward overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategies that local governments can use to achieve economic, environmental, social, and human health benefits. The series covers energy efficiency, transportation, community planning and design, solid waste and materials management, and renewable energy.
NOAA Coral Reef Information System
An information portal to products from NOAA coral reef research, monitoring, and management activities with emphasis on the U.S. states, territories, and remote island areas.
Sustainable Energy and Atmospheric Sciences Seminars
A monthly seminar series designed to enhance communication and collaboration among scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, and others in the community working on issues related to renewable energy. This seminar series brings together those who can combine their knowledge and expertise to solve the problems that have slowed the integration of renewable energy sources into the U.S. electric grid.
Climate and the Oregon Coast
A library of videos on a variety of coastal and ocean topics specific to Oregon.
Global Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the United States National Climate Assessment
Global sea level has been steadily rising for decades and is expected to continue. Scientists have very high confidence that global sea level will rise at least another 8 inches and as much as 6.6 feet by 2100, causing significant impacts in U.S. coastal regions. This report lays out the science and describes possible scenarios to help planners and policy leaders assess the risks.
2012 Arctic Report Card
The annual Report Card provides clear, concise scientific information on the state of the Arctic region, organized into 5 sections: Atmosphere, Sea Ice & Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, Terrestrial Ecosystems, and Hydrology & Terrestrial Cryosphere. This edition was prepared by an international team of 121 scientists from 14 different countries. Independent peer-review of the 2012 Report Card was organized by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme of the Arctic Council.
Highlights from 2012 include new records set for snow extent, sea ice extent and ice sheet surface melting, despite air temperatures - a key cause of melting - being unremarkable relative to the last decade. Multiple observations provide strong evidence of widespread, sustained change driving Arctic environmental system into new state.
Climate Showcase Communities Program
A database of model clean energy projects implemented in 50 diverse communities across the U.S. highlighted by the Environmental Protection Agency. The site also contains tools and resources for communities looking to start greenhouse reduction projects on their own.
Information about the energy related programs and resources within NOAA. These resources include NOAA's renewable energy program, wind forecast improvements, and solar resource database.
Managing Drought in the Southern Plains
A series of archived and ongoing webinars on drought in Southern Plains with a focus on agriculture sponsored by the Souther Climate Impacts Planning Program.
Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change
A comprehensive scientific assessment providing an in-depth analysis of the costs and benefits of different approaches to mitigating and avoiding climate change.
When Every Drop Counts: Protecting Public Health During Drought Conditions—A Guide for Public Health Professionals
This publication, by the Centers for Disease Control, is intended to assist public health officials, practitioners, and other stakeholders in their efforts first to understand and then to prepare for drought in their communities. It provides information about how drought affects public health, recommends steps to help mitigate the health effects of drought, identifies future needs for research and other drought related activities, and provides a list of helpful resources and tools.
Special Reports on Extreme Climate Events
Some significant climate events are subject to a deeper analysis than is possible on the NOAA National Climatic Data Center's operational monitoring time scales. This section catalogs significant climate- and weather-related events from the late 1990s to the present. The catalog of Special Reports includes but is not limited to: hurricanes, droughts, wildfires, and flooding.
National Fish, Wildlife and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy
From the Arctic to the Everglades, impacts like rising sea levels, warmer temperatures, loss of sea ice, and changing precipitation patterns are affecting the species we care about, the services we value, and the places we call home. Federal, state, and tribal partners with input from many other diverse groups from across the nation have worked to develop a common strategy to respond to these challenges. The National Fish, Wildlife and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy is currently in draft form and, when finished, will provide a unified approach for reducing the negative impacts of climate change on fish, wildlife, plants, and the natural systems upon which they depend.
Arctic Report Card: 2011
The annual Report Card provides clear, concise scientific information on the state of the Arctic region, organized into 5 sections: Atmosphere, Sea Ice & Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, Terrestrial Ecosystems, and Hydrology & Terrestrial Cryosphere. This edition was prepared by an international team of 121 scientists from 14 different countries. Independent peer-review of the 2011 Report Card was organized by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme of the Arctic Council.
National Action Plan for Managing Freshwater Resources in a Changing Climate
A plan published by the White House Climate Change Adaptation Taskforce to help freshwater resource managers assure adequate water supplies, safeguard water quality and aquatic ecosystems, and protect human life, health and property. The plan lays out six goals for effective management: Establish a Planning Process to Adapt Water Resources Management to a Changing Climate
- Improve Water Resources and Climate Change Information for Decision-Making
- Strengthen Assessment of Vulnerability of Water Resources to Climate Change
- Expand Water Use Efficiency
- Support Integrated Water Resources Management
- Support Training and Outreach to Build Response Capability
Maine's Climate Future
A report that considers past change over geologic time, recent evidence of accelerated rates of change, and the implications of continued climate change in Maine during the 21st century as a result of greenhouse gas emissions and their associated pollutants.
Drought Impact Reporter
The National Drought Mitigation Center launched the Drought Impact Reporter (DIR) in July 2005 as the nation’s first comprehensive database of drought impacts. DIR collects and displays drought impact information for the U.S., providing researchers and interested members of the public with more context and detail on drought, as well as more readily summarized information.
State of the Climate in 2010
Over 360 authors from 45 countries contributed to this comprehensive appraisal of the Earth’s climate. Observations from pole-to-pole show climate patterns such as La Niña and El Niño contributed to some climate events this year. Trends consistent with manmade climate change over the last 50 years are also continuing. These include warming temperatures, melting glaciers and saltier seas, which are related to rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.
U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2008
The U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2008 (USDA GHG Inventory) is a comprehensive assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks in U.S. agriculture and forests. The USDA GHG Inventory provides extensive, in-depth emissions and sinks estimates for livestock, cropland, and forests as well as energy consumption in livestock and cropland agriculture.
America’s Climate Choices
This is the final report in the America’s Climate Choices series. It includes analysis by scientists, engineers, economists, business leaders and policy experts on how to address climate change in the United States. The report advocates for an iterative risk management approach to climate change and using strong federal climate policies to support and enhance existing local, state and private sector efforts. It identifies four key areas policymakers should focus on.
The Drought-Ready Communities pilot project culminated in summer 2010 with a Guide to Community Drought Preparedness that communities throughout the U.S. can use to understand and reduce their drought risk.The process outlined in the Guide is broad-based, recognizing that drought creates problems that go beyond the scope of what water suppliers alone can address. With that in mind, the guide provides worksheets, planning tips, and case studies to help communities hone in on processes and solutions to drought.
Building America: Resources for Energy-Efficient Homes
A series of publications by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to help residential builders achieve whole-house energy savings in five major climate zones.The series includes best practices and case studies for new and retrofitted projects.
Fisheries of the United States
A 2010 report on the state of commercial and recreational fisheries in the U.S. including territorial seas, the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone, and the high seas.
Adapting to Climate Change: A Planning Guide for State Coastal Managers
A guide from NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management to help coastal managers develop and implement adaptation plans in the face of climate change. The guide is designed to help U.S. state and territorial coastal managers develop and implement adaptation plans to reduce the impacts and consequences of climate change and climate variability. It was written in response to a request from state coastal managers for guidance from NOAA on adaptation planning in the coastal zone.
Technical Considerations for Use of Geospatial Data in Sea Level Change Mapping and Assessment
Guidance for federal and state agencies and coastal planners for conducting sea level change assessments and mapping. The report is intended to provide technical guidance to agencies, practitioners, and coastal decision-makers seeking to use and/or collect geospatial data to assist with sea level change assessments and mapping products.
Building a Resilient Coast: Maine Confronts Climate Change
A five-part documentary on the concerns and interests of Maine coastal residents regarding climate change, published by Maine Sea Grant in partnership with Oregon Sea Grant. The project had several objectives: exploring how climate variability and coastal hazards are affecting the Maine coast and how these relate to coastal development; encouraging collaboration among decision-makers and coastal property owners; and discovering the barriers to taking action to prepare for or mitigate climate-related impacts.
Sea Ice Manual
The purpose of the Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy's Sea Ice Manual is to improve the availability of current information about sea ice from operational and academic observation programs to key user groups. It provides Arctic Alaska coastal community leaders and local user groups with an up-to-date, comprehensive, and practical guide to current reference resources on sea ice and climate that are relevant to their planning, subsistence activities, and way of life.
Climate Change Impacts: Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries
A 2010 report on climate change impacts and climate change action plans for marine ecosystems on California's north-central coast.
Coastal Strategies for Addressing Climate Change
A collection of case studies and information about how coastal communities can plan for and adapt to climate change. These resources represent a national guide for how coastal communities can plan and adapt. Case study issues range from coastal managers addressing sea level rise in Rhode Island to coral bleaching caused by rising sea temperatures in Florida.
Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change
Much of the nation’s experience to date in managing and protecting its people, resources, and infrastructure is based on the historic record of climate variability during a period of relatively stable climate. This report from the America’s Climate Choices suite of studies concludes that adaptation to climate change calls for a new paradigm--one that considers a range of possible future climate conditions and associated impacts, some well outside the realm of past experience.
Transportation's Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions
This U.S. Department of Transportation report, submitted to the U.S. Congress in April 2010, evaluates a range of strategies for reducing greenhouse gases from transportation including: introducing low-carbon fuels; increasing vehicle fuel economy; improving transportation system efficiency; aligning transportation planning and investments to achieve GHG reduction objectives; and pricing carbon.
Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Agreements to limit emissions of greenhouse gases are currently the focus of international negotiations, and with such accords will come the need to accurately estimate these emissions, monitor their changes over time, and verify them with independent data. This report identifies strategic investments that could be made within 5 years to both improve self-reporting and yield a capability to verify these estimates and reduce uncertainties about emissions to less than 10 percent.
Our Living Oceans: A Report on the Status of U.S. Living Marine Resources
The sixth edition of a report card to the American public on the biological health of U.S. living marine resources, published by NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service. The report includes updates on major fisheries and marine resources as well as feature articles on fisheries science, coral, and cooperative and proactive approaches to the Endangered Species Act.
Global Climate Change Impacts in the U.S. (Agriculture)
A chapter from the 2009 U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) report, titled Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, focused specifically on the intersections of climate and agriculture.
Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (Water)
A chapter from the 2009 U.S. Global Change Research Program report, titled Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, focused specifically on the intersections of climate and water resources.
The Corn and Climate Report
An overview of climate science in service to farmers and agricultural producers in the Midwestern United States. This document, produced for non-specialists, summarizes the results of a workshop that brought together providers of weather and climate services and agricultural producers, agribusiness providers, and advisors from state agricultural extension networks to assess the latest scientific understanding of climate, variability, and change in the Midwest.
Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (Transportation)
A chapter from the 2009 U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) report, titled Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, focused specifically on the intersections of climate and transportation.
Assessing Economic Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation
Reliable estimates of the costs and benefits to the U.S. economy for various emissions reduction and adaptation strategies are critical to federal climate change R&D portfolio planning and investment decisions. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Academies organized a workshop to consider these issues. The workshop participants discussed three dimensions: policy, analysis, and economics. They focused on (i) policymakers' informational needs; (ii) models and other analytic approaches to meet these needs; (iii) important economic considerations, including equity and discounting; and (iv) opportunities to enhance analytical capabilities and better inform policy.
Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (2009)
Climate changes are underway in the United States and are projected to grow. Consequently, crops and livestock production will be increasingly challenged and threats to human health will increase. These are two key findings presented in this 2009 assessment report by the U.S. Global Change Research Program. The report gives an overview of climate-related issues and impacts for seven geographical regions and seven sectors of society.
Shoreline Impacts, Setbacks Policy and Sea Level Rise
A review of local laws related to sea level rise for shoreline setback policy, prepared by Center for Island Climate Adaptation and Policy. Though the report was commissioned in response to a proposed law for Hawaii, the review of laws across the country make this guide applicable for coastal communities across the United States.
Scanning the Conservation Horizon: A Guide to Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment
A guide released by the National Wildlife Federation in 2011 for conservationists and resource managers to help them understand and assess the impact of climate change on species and ecosystems, including fisheries.
Coastal Sensitivity to Sea Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region
Global sea level is rising at an accelerating rate. This report examines the implications of rising sea level, with a focus on the U.S. mid-Atlantic region, where storm impacts occur and there is a large extent of critical habitat, high population densities, and infrastructure in low-lying areas.
Best Practice Approaches for Characterizing, Communicating, and Incorporating Scientific Uncertainty in Decision Making
A tutorial for the climate analysis and decision-making communities on current best practices in describing and analyzing uncertainty in climate-related problems. Uncertainty is ubiquitous. Of course, the presence of uncertainty does not mean that people cannot act.
Thresholds of Climate Change in Ecosystems
An assessment of the potential for abrupt state changes or regime shifts in ecosystems in response to climate change. Better understanding of sudden changes to ecosystems, and the goods and services they provide, is extremely important if natural resource managers are to succeed in developing adaptation strategies.
Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts
A detailed look at global distributions and properties of airborne particles known as "aerosols." The report examines the various ways in which aerosols influence climate, and the uncertainties in our ability to observe and measure these particles' impact on the climate system.
Strategies to Promote Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices
This report systematically examines the market readiness of key technologies important to meeting climate change mitigation goals. It assesses the barriers and business risks impeding their progress and greater market application. The report was sponsored by the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (a multi-agency group led by the U.S. Department of Energy) and was submitted to the President and Congress in January 2009.
Past Climate Variability and Change in the Arctic and at High Latitudes
Over the past 30 years, average temperatures in the Arctic have increased at almost twice the rate of the planet as a whole. Such temperature changes have been accompanied by shrinking sea ice, melting ice and permafrost on land, and widespread impacts to land and ocean ecosystems.
Understanding Coral Reef Use
A trio of reports on the impacts of human use on coral reefs in the Florida Keys and opportunities for more sustainable practices from the Florida Reef Resilience Program. Topics include snorkeling, SCUBA diving, and recreational fishing.
Decision-Support Experiments and Evaluations Using Seasonal-to-Interannual Forecasts and Observational Data: A Focus on Water Resources
An evaluation of decision support experiments that have used seasonal-to-interannual climate forecasts and observational data. Earth's climate varies naturally and also changes in response to human activity. Our ability to adapt and respond to climate depends on our understanding of the system and how to incorporate this understanding into resource management decisions.
Estuarine Fish and Shellfish Species in the U.S. Commercial and Recreational Fisheries: Economic Value as an Incentive to Protect and Restore Estuarine Habitat
An analysis of the economic value of commercial and recreational fisheries in the United States, published in 2008.
Uses and Limitations of Observations, Data, Forecasts, and Other Projections in Decision Support for Selected Sectors and Regions
Scientific information about Earth's climate, water, air, land, and other dynamic processes is essential for our understanding of humankind's relationship to our natural resources and our environment. This report examines contributions of Earth science information in decision support activities and their relationship to climate change science.
Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios for Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radiatively Active Gases and Aerosols
An assessment of the effects of short-lived gases and particles in the atmosphere. They can significantly change regional surface temperatures. By the year 2100 short-lived gases and particles may account for as much as 40 percent of the warming over the continental U.S. in summertime.
Climate Impacts on U.S. Living Marine Resources: National Marine Fisheries Service Concerns, Activities and Needs
A 2008 report on climate impacts on coastal and marine ecosystems as it relates to the National Marine Fisheries Service's work.
Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations
Scientists use mathematical models of Earth's climate, run on the most powerful computers available, to examine hypotheses about past and present-day climates. This report describes the models and their ability to simulate climate.
Preliminary Review of Adaptation Options for Climate-Sensitive Ecosystems and Resources
A review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources in the United States. This report focuses on the following selected land management systems: National Forests, National Parks, National Wildlife Refuges, Wild and Scenic Rivers, National Estuaries, and Marine Protected Areas.
Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate
An assessment in the state of knowledge concerning changes in weather and climate extremes in North America and U.S. territories. Changes in extreme weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate.
Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate
An assessment in the state of knowledge concerning changes in weather and climate extremes in North America and U.S. territories. Changes in extreme weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate.
The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States
An assessment of the effects of climate change on U.S. land resources, water resources, agriculture, and biodiversity. There is robust consensus that human-induced climate change is occurring. This report discusses the nation's ability to identify, observe, and monitor climate-related stresses that influence agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity.
Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure ― Gulf Coast Study
As global temperatures increase, sea levels rise, and weather patterns change, the stewards of our Nation's infrastructure are challenged to consider how these changes may affect the country's roads, airports, rail, transit systems, and ports. This study focuses on potential impacts of climate change on human infrastructure in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.
Reanalysis of Historical Climate Data for Key Atmospheric Features: Implications for Attribution of Causes of Observed Change
A reanalysis combines a diverse array of past observations together within a model to derive a best estimate of how the climate system has evolved over time. The goal is to provide consistent and reliable long-term datasets of temperatures, precipitation, winds, and many other climate variables.
Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems
A review of impacts of global climate change on three broad dimensions of the human condition: human health, human settlements, and human welfare. This report examines opportunities for adaptation and associated recommendations for addressing data gaps and near- and long-term research goals.
Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Use in the United States
This report summarizes the effects of climate change on energy production and use in the United States. It also identifies where research could reduce uncertainties about vulnerabilities, possible effects, and strategies to reduce negative effects and increase adaptive capacity.
Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis
A comprehensive and up-to-date scientific assessment of past, present, and future global climate change. The assessment confirms that the scientific understanding of the climate system and its sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions is now richer and deeper than ever before. The chapters forming the bulk of this report describe scientists assessment of the state-of-knowledge in their respective fields.
Excessive Heat Events Guidebook
The Environmental Protection Agency produced this publication with assistance from federal, state, local, and academic partners. It is designed to help community officials, emergency managers, meteorologists, and others plan for and respond to excessive heat events. The Guidebook highlights best practices that have been employed to save lives during excessive heat events in different urban areas. Developed in partnership with NOAA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Department of Homeland Security, the Guidebook provides a menu of options that officials can use to respond to these events in their communities. Municipal officials in both the U.S. and Canada also provided useful information that can be used to help the public cope with excessive heat.
Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere: Steps for Understanding and Reconciling Differences
This report addresses previously identified discrepancies between observations and simulations of surface and atmospheric temperature trends. It is an important revision to the conclusions of earlier reports from the U.S. National Research Council and the IPCC.
Decision Support Tools (45)
Corn Growing Degree Day Tool
Track real-time and historical GDD accumulations, assess spring and fall frost risk, and guide decisions related to planting, harvest, and seed selection. This innovative tool integrates corn development stages with weather and climate data for location-specific decision support tailored specifically to agricultural production.
Access customized historical climate and crop yield data for the U.S. Corn Belt. View graphs of monthly temperature and precipitation, plot corn and soybean yield trends, and compare climate and yields over the past 30 years. Used in tandem with other decision resources, this product can help you find long-term correlations between climate trends and yields and help put your recent growing cycles into historical context.
Drought Risk Atlas
The National Drought Mitigation Center unveiled the Drought Risk Atlas on March 21. The atlas provides analysis of data on drought frequency and severity for more than 3,000 spots across the country. The stations chosen for the atlas go back at least 40 years with nearly continuous data, and some go back more than 100 years.
Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy
President Obama’s Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force released a rebuilding strategy that outlines a set of principles and recommendations to guide recovery and rebuilding efforts in the wake of Sandy. The Strategy will help ensure communities are better able to withstand and recover from future storms.
Introducing the Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT)
NOAA unveiled this powerful new tool in July 2013 to help users produce data-driven answers to climate-related questions. The tool helps users link local weather and water events to signals in the climate system; understand how global climate change contributes to local climate trends; and explore how climate variability contributes to local impacts. Registration is required to use LCAT.
Integrated Map Application
Access multiple layers of free, searchable climate data quickly and easily through this integrated GIS map application. Global, regional, and U.S. maps are available as well as surface station data for a variety of measurements — including temperature, precipitation, climate indices and more!
Coral Reef Ecosystem Integrated Observing System
The NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Integrated Observing System provides a diverse suite of long-term ecological and environmental observations and information products over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Its goal is to help people understand coral reef ecosystem conditions and processes, and to inform stakeholders and assist managers in making improved and timely ecosystem-based management decisions to conserve coral reefs.
Pacific Storms Climatology Products
The Pacific Storms Climatology Products website provides access to an integrated suite of data products that delineate patterns and trends of storm frequency and intensity in the Pacific Ocean.
The PacificIslandsClimate.org (PIKO) website is a gateway to a broad range of information related to climate in the Pacific Islands. PIKO includes summaries of programs, projects, and activities, as well as data, information products, and services.
Gulf of Mexico Climate Outreach Community of Practice
The NOAA Gulf of Mexico Regional Team and the Sea Grant Programs from the Gulf States support a Community of Practice (CoP) for long-term engagement with coastal communities addressing climate change. This CoP is a group of professionals working together to enhance climate literacy in the region and to develop and implement strategies for adapting to sea level rise.
Southern Plains Drought Early Warning System
In 2011, a drought of strong intensity and vast geographical extent developed in the southern United States. As the drought intensified, there was a need to improve the communication with decision makers to help them anticipate and manage the drought's impacts. A four-pronged approach was used to begin the conversation across the region: state drought planning workshops, climate outlook forums, management webinars and media engagement, and a bilateral collaboration in the Rio Grande / Bravo basin.
Drought Monitoring Tools
A host of drought monitoring tools used to prepare the U.S. Drought Monitor maintained by the National Climatic Data Center. The site includes streamflow, preciptiation, topsoi, and fire incidence information.
An open-source suite of tools developed specifically for farmers and ranchers in the southeastern U.S. Tools available can help growers plan for certain types of crop disease, crop yields, climate and drought risks, growing degree days, greenhouse gas emissions, and water usage.
Red River Basin Decision Information Network
A suite of web-based tools developed for the Red River Basin in response to the 1997 floods and designed for decision makers and the general public.
TreeFlow is a comprehensive web resource for tree-ring reconstructions of streamflow and climate, providing easy access to reconstruction data as well as information about how the data were developed, and can be used. Originally developed by researchers at the Climate Assessment for the Southwest, TreeFlow has a growing collection of tree ring constructions for river basins throughout the Western United States.
The WestMap toolbox is an interactive web-based interface developed by the Climate Assessment for the Southwest in response to findings that stakeholders in the Western U.S. from a wide range of sectors require new forms of data, intuitive tools, and support resources to understand climate variability and to be able to incorporate this understanding into specific planning and management efforts. The toolbox includes a lengthy time series of fine-scale (~1-4 km) gridded climate data that can be aggregated to user-specified domains as well as helpful climate education information.
Cal-Adapt is a web-based climate adaptation planning tool developed in part by the University of California, Berkeley's Geospatial Innovation Facility for the State of California. Cal-Adapt allows users to identify potential climate change risks in specific geographic areas throughout the state. Users can either query by location, or click on an interactive map to explore what climate impacts are projected to occur in their area of interest.
New Mexico AgroClimate
AgroClimate is an interactive web tool developed by the Climate Assessment for the Southwest that allows decision makers to evaluate the affects of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on important agricultural indicators such as growing degree days and chill accumulation. Agro Climate also evaluates historical climate to help estimate effective schedules for pecan irrigation.
Arizona DroughtWatch is a tool designed by the Climate Assessment for the Southwest to collect, summarize, and display timely observations of drought impacts across Arizona. The tool was developed to support drought monitoring efforts spearheaded by county-level Local Drought Impact Groups organized in support of the Arizona State Drought Preparedness Plan.
Paleoclimate Reconstructions for the Southwest
The longest instrumental climate records date back only about 100 years in the Southwest, a timeframe that likely does not capture the full range of climate variability. Extending the record to earlier times provides additional information on the length and severity of past droughts. This tool created by the Climate Assessment for the Southwest allows users to visualize the climate variability during the past 1,000 years or so in each climate division in Arizona and New Mexico.
Historical Hurricane Tracks
This interactive mapping application easily searches and displays global tropical cyclone data. Users are able to query storms by the storm name, Zip Code, city, state, geographic region, or latitude/longitude coordinates. Custom queries can track storms of interest and allow for data extraction and download.
C-CAP Land Cover Atlas
An online data viewer from NOAA's Coastal Services Center providing user-friendly access to regional land cover and land cover change information. The Land Cover Atlas eliminates the need for desktop geographic information system software, or advanced technical expertise, by processing Coastal Change Analysis Program data for the user and providing easy access. The tool summarizes general change trends (such as forest losses or new development) and can highlight specific changes of interest (salt marsh losses to open water, or evergreen forest losses to development, for instance).
Habitat Priority Planner
This free PC-based tool from NOAA's Coastal Service Center aids in decisions about conservation, restoration, and planning. The Habitat Priority Planner takes away much of the subjective nature of the process by providing critical habitat analyses that are consistent, repeatable, and transparent. The program allows users to easily test various ideas and "what if" scenarios on the fly, making it the perfect tool to use in a group setting.
Impervious Surface Analysis Tool
The Impervious Surface Analysis Tool (ISAT), which is available as a geographic information system extension, is used to calculate the percentage of impervious surface area within user-selected geographic areas (e.g, watersheds, municipalities, subdivisions). In small watersheds, the correlation between an increase in impervious surfaces and a decrease in water quality has been well established. People use the information derived from ISAT to predict how different management scenarios might impact local water quality.
OpenNSPECT, an open-source version of the Nonpoint-Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool (N-SPECT), is a plugin to the free MapWindow GIS open-source platform. Enhancements in this version of N-SPECT include faster processing time, additional coefficients for common land cover data products, and a comparison function to evaluate differences in land use scenarios.
CanVis is a visualization program used to see potential impacts from coastal development or sea level rise. Users can download background pictures and insert the objects (hotel, house, marina, or other objects) of their choosing. The free PC-based software is used by municipalities to brainstorm new ideas and policies, undertake project planning, and make presentations.
Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases-Carbon Management Evaluation Tool
A decision support tool for agricultural producers, land managers, soil scientists and other agricultural interests, COMET-VR estimates soil carbon changes for management alternatives for a ten-year projection period within each Major Land Resource Area (MLRA) allowing users to estimate soil carbon sequestration on a parcel of land. The COMET-VR tool is provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Residential Energy Demand Temperature Index (REDTI)
This index is based on population-weighted heating- and cooling-degree days. The REDTI tool is valuable for explaining year-to-year fluctuations in energy demand for residential heating and cooling.
Ultraviolet Index Forecast Bulletin and Map
NOAA's Climate Prediction Center provides daily forecast maps of Ultraviolet (UV) Index for 58 U.S. cities, colored coded to their anticipated level of exposure. According to the World Health Organization, prolonged exposure to the sun's UV radiation may result in acute and chronic health effects on our skin, eyes, and immune system.
U.S. Hazards Outlooks
A summary of forecast and hazards—including extreme heat & cold, flood & drought, winds and severe weather—for 3-7 days as well as 8-14 days into the future.
National and Local Weather Hazards
The National Weather Service provides weather, water, and climate data, forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and enhancement of the national economy. These products include forecast and warnings of environmental events that can impact human health, such as excessive heat, flooding, severe cold, and more.
U.S. Heat Stress Index
When both temperature and humidity are high, humans can experience considerable heat stress. In the U.S., extreme heat may have greater impact on human health, especially among the elderly, than any other type of severe weather. The combined effects of temperature and humidity cannot be directly measured but can be assessed by calculation of an "apparent temperature." This index of “how hot it feels” should not be confused with the Heat Index used by NOAA's National Weather Service because the latter index is not defined for temperature below 80°F (27°C) and relative humidity below 40%.
U.S. Drought Monitor
Drought is one of the most costly natural disasters affecting the United States. The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) helps the nation and North America understand and proactively prepare for drought by providing data and information about the extent and potential impacts of drought and associated risks. The system provides a variety of decision support tools to help people prepare for and mitigate the effects of drought.
U.S. Record-Setting Events
This NOAA National Climatic Data Center tool allows users to look up record-setting events for a given day, month, or all time. Specifically, users can look for record highest minimum or maximum temperature, lowest min/max temperature, precipitation, or snowfall. This information is available for individual U.S. states, U.S. regions, and U.S. territories.
Ecosystem-Based Management Tools Network
A database of tools created and used by a network of over 4000 coastal and marine conservation practitioners. The EBM Tools Network is currently focusing on tools for climate change vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning, ecosystem-based coastal and marine spatial planning and integrated land-sea planning to minimize the impacts of land use on coastal and marine environments.
Shoreline Management Toolbox
A suite of tools that provides guidance on addressing issues such as coastal erosion and sea level rise.
Sea Level Rise Viewer
A map-based decision support tool for coastal managers and scientists to plan for different sea level rise scenarios and potential coastal flooding impacts.
Coastal Inundation Toolkit
A collection of tools and information from the NOAA Coastal Service Center for coastal communities to help them better understand and address the inundation issues. The kit specifically includes a crash course in key concepts related to inundation, visualization and risk recognition tools, and resources to help explain the consequences of coastal inundation and the benefits of preparing for it.
Heat Index Forecasts
Heat index products are issued from the medium-range forecast function of the Hydrological Prediction Center for days 3 through 7 during the period from May 1 through September 30. With the exception of day 3, these products are based on an ensemble of model and human forecasts. Graphic plots display the cities for which the heat index forecast is interpolated, as well as shaded contours indicating the probability of the daily maximum, daily minimum, and daily mean heat index reaching or exceeding a specific threshold.
The Pecanigator is a irrigation scheduling tool for pecan growers in New Mexico put together by researchers at New Mexico State University. By choosing soil type, last irrigation date and the amount of rainfall since last irrigation, the tool allows growers to schedule their next irrigation. The tool is most accurate between May 15th and September 30th in orchards with 75% or greater canopy cover. This tool should not be used for scheduling irrigations for new plantings or for orchards with less than 60% canopy cover.
Crop Moisture Stress Index
A measure of the effects of drought and catastrophic wetness on national crop yields for corn and soy.
Coastal County Snapshots
Coastal County Snapshots turn complex data into easy-to-understand stories, complete with charts and graphs. Users select a coastal county of interest and the website does the rest, providing information that can help communities become more resilient to coastal hazards.
Local officials can use the snapshots as a planning tool to assess their county’s resilience to flooding and understand the benefits provided by natural resources. The handouts generated by the snapshots can be a helpful educational tool when working with governing bodies and citizen groups.Current topics include flood exposure, wetland benefits, and ocean and Great Lakes jobs.
Plant Hardiness Zone Map
A map updated in 2012 to reflect the new climate normals showing which plants are most likely to thrive at a specific location. Users can quickly see what plants will grow in their area by a zip code search.
A tool that provides a flexible capability for creating user-determined climate change scenarios for assessing the potential impacts of climate change on sediment loading to streams using the the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model. In combination with the existing capabilities of WEPP for assessing the effectiveness of management practices, WEPPCAT also can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies for managing the impacts of climate change.
EPA BASINS 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool
A tool that integrates geographical information, watershed data, and state-of-the-art modeling tools. Specifically, BASINS CAT provides flexible capabilities for creating climate change scenarios allowing users to quickly assess a wide range of "what if" questions about how weather and climate could affect their systems.
Fact Sheets (3)
Preparing for Drought & Water Resource Challenges
All regions and economic sectors in the U.S. depend on adequate and reliable water supplies. This briefing sheet describes how NOAA is working to help the nation understand, prepare for, and respond to drought, flooding, and other water resource challenges.
Preparing for Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding
The U.S. has one of the world's largest and most diverse coastal zones. Climate variability and change present real threats to our coasts. NOAA is working with partners to build climate-smart coastal communities.
Toward a Climate Smart Nation
Americans' health, security, and economic wellbeing are tied to climate and weather. This briefing sheet describes how NOAA is leveraging its climate science and services to help the nation prepare for the impacts of climate variability and change.
Data Products (20)
University of Hawaii Sea Level Center
The University of Hawaii Sea Level Center collects, processes, distributes, and analyzes in situ tide gauge data from around the world in support of climate research. UHSLC scientists conduct research on global sea level rise, sea level variations associated with ocean circulation, tidal processes, extreme sea level events & coastal inundation.
Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System Voyager
The Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) Voyager is an interactive map interface for visualizing and downloading oceanographic observations, forecasts, and other geospatial data and information related to the marine environment and beyond.
OceanWatch-Central Pacific acquires and processes satellite information and creates a variety of satellite data products for the Pacific Ocean region. We provide daily satellite observations of the Central Pacific Region.
Asia-Pacific Data Research Center
The Asia-Pacific Data Research Center increases understanding of climate variability in the Asia-Pacific region by developing the computational, data management, and networking infrastructure necessary to make data resources readily accessible and usable to researchers and general users; and by undertaking data-intensive research activities that will both advance knowledge and lead to improvements in data preparation and data products.
Pacific Islands Climate Outlooks Catalog
The Pacific Islands Climate Outlooks Catalog is a gateway to a broad range of climate data and outlooks that are relevant to the Pacific Islands region.
Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program Data Products
The NOAA-funded Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program (SCIPP) has developed a range of experimental and prototype tools to support climate-related decision-making and planning. These datasets and tools are designed to help increase resiliency and preparedness for weather and climate extremes now and in the future across the Southern-Central United States.
Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas
The Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas provides online answers to questions related to the physical environment, marine resources, and economic activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Information is presented in the form of map plates with descriptions, written by recognized subject matter experts, explaining how the data were gathered and how they are relevant. The Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas, prepared by NOAA, has data from federal, state and non-governmental agencies, and academia.
Climate normals are the average values of meteorological parameters -- such as temperature, precipitation, frost/freeze data, and snowfall data -- over 30-year spans. The climate normals data help describe typical climate conditions for a given place and time of year, and are used as a baseline to which current conditions can be compared.
National Solar Radiation Database
The National Solar Radiation Database contains 30 years (1961-1990) of solar radiation and supplementary meteorological data, and hourly solar radiation and meteorological data for 237 National Weather Service sites in the United States, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Also includes maps of the monthly amounts of solar power that could be generated with various solar collectors.
Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) Solar Energy Forecast
The LAPS system produces rapidly updated, high-resolution analyses and forecasts of solar radiation. The cloud analysis uses satellite, METARs, radar, aircraft, and model first guess information to produce an hourly 3-D field of cloud fraction, cloud liquid, and cloud ice. The cloud analysis and satellite data together are used to produce a gridded analysis of total solar radiation.
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)
The CDIAC is the primary global-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It contains information on concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radioactively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level.
Air Quality Forecast Guidance Maps
Twice per day NOAA's National Weather Services publishes digital maps that show national forecasts for ozone, smoke, and dust. Ozone is shown as 1-hour and 8-hour concentrations. Official Air Quality point forecasts, issued by state and local air quality forecasters, along with additional information on air quality can be found under EPA's AIRNow site. Surface and column-averaged concentrations of predicted smoke for large fires are displayed as 1-hour averages, updated each day.
Smoke Forecasting System
The NOAA Smoke Forecasting System integrates satellite information on the location of wildfires with weather data inputs from the North American Mesoscale model and smoke dispersion simulations. The result is a daily prediction of smoke transport and concentration 48 hours into the future. The model also incorporates U.S. Forest Service estimates for wildfire smoke emissions based on vegetation cover. This system is intended as guidance for air quality forecasters and the public for fine particulate matter emitted from large wildfires and agricultural burning, which can elevate concentrations of fine particles to unhealthy levels. Particle pollution can be particularly hazardous for people with asthma and other respiratory illneses.
Air Stagnation Index
Atmospheric pollution manifests itself in many ways, ranging from reduced visibility to dangerous respiratory problems and discomfort. Atmospheric pollution can be gaseous (e.g. ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) and/or particulate (e.g. soot, dust). The degree of pollution is dependent on a number of factors: source, transport from source, and build up over time through air stagnation. The stagnation index maps show where in the United States air has stagnated, leading to potential impacts on human and environmental health.
Local Climatological Data
A monthly summary from major airport weather stations that includes a daily account of temperature extremes, degree days, precipitation and winds. Also included are the hourly precipitation and abbreviated 3-hourly weather observations.
Regional Snowfall Index
NOAA produces the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two-thirds of the United States. The RSI ranks snowstorm impacts on a scale from 1 to 5, similar to the Fujita scale for tornadoes or the Saffir-Simpson scale for hurricanes.
U.S. Snow Climatology
Here you can access snowfall and snow depth statistics for several thousand non-airport stations in the National Weather Service (NWS) Cooperative (COOP) Network across the contiguous U.S. and Alaska. Data are available for daily, monthly, and seasonal snowfall and snow depth totals, which are useful in economic and engineering decision-making, and provide the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) with an objective basis for declaring federal snow disasters.
This online resource examines tornado activity across the United States across temporal and spatial scales. The contiguous United States is the most active tornado region in the world, with an average of 1,253 tornadoes occurring annually. The information and data provided here serves as a baseline for comparing current tornado activity to the past, providing a complete historical perspective.
Severe Weather Data
This online resource provides links to several NOAA online severe weather databases, including the Storm Events Database and the Severe Weather Data Inventory. These databases provide online access to files for storm and hurricane data in commonly used formats, such as shapefiles for GIS applications, KMZ for Google Earth, comma-separated values, and extensible markup language (XML).
NOAA's National Climatic Data Center issues monthly storm data containing a chronological listing, by states, of storm occurrences and unusual weather phenomena. Reports contain information on storm paths, deaths, injuries, and property damage. An "Outstanding storms of the month" section highlights severe weather events with photographs, illustrations, and narratives. Users may also search the NCDC Storm Event database to find various types of storms recorded in your county or use other selection criteria as desired.