Understanding the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) as multiple layers of ice cream. And how is it related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation?
Guest blogger Amy Butler explains how changes in the stratospheric polar vortex can influence the "usual" effects of El Niño on the climate in the Northern Hemisphere.
Where are my El Niño impacts?!
How can warming at Earth’s surface have slowed when energy accumulation is growing? The role of our oceans—including ENSO—is key.
Along with ENSO, what other climate patterns might be useful for predicting temperatures and precipitation in the United States?