April snow extent was record low across Europe and Asia, and in June, the entire Northern Hemisphere was below average for the tenth year in a row. Spring snow is disappearing even more rapidly than Arctic sea ice in summer.
Sea ice changes are key to polar bear health and numbers. Only one of the evaluated groups is increasing. Several are stable; a few are already declining
Punctuating a trend of declining reflectivity, the Greenland Ice Sheet reflected less sunlight in August 2014 than it did in any previous summer on record.
Compared to 2012’s extreme warmth, surface water temperatures were more moderate in summer 2014. Nevertheless, pockets of very warm temperatures existed.
Earth System Models (ESMs) project that climate change will lead to approximately 1-10% declines in global ocean phytoplankton productivity by the end of the 21st century, under high carbon...