Reports and Resources (13)
National Academies Report: Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change
Climate is changing, but how quickly? Will the changes be gradual, allowing natural systems and societal infrastructure to adjust in a timely fashion? Or will some of the changes be more abrupt, changing so fast that orderly adaptation is not possible? This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on potential abrupt changes to the ocean, atmosphere, ecosystems, and high latitude areas, and identifies key research and monitoring needs.
Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis
On September 27, 2013, Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented its report to member governments for approval and acceptance. The report is the first of four that will make up the IPCC's 5th Assessment.
Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States
A part of the 2013 U.S. National Climate Assessment, this book gives an overview of the past, present, and projected future of the southwest region's climate, emphasizing new information and understandings since publication of the previous national assessment in 2009. It examines what climate and climate change mean for the health and well-being of human populations and the environment. The book looks at climate's effects on the region's watersheds and ecosystems, links between supply and demand of natural resources, and impacts on key sectors — such as water, agriculture, energy, and transportation. It also includes information on responses and preparedness to reduce vulnerabilities and improve resilience to extremes of weather and climate.
The Island Climate Update
The Island Climate Update is a monthly summary of the climate in the tropical South Pacific islands, with an outlook for the coming months, to assist in dissemination of climate information in the Pacific region. This bulletin is a multi-national project with collaboration from a number of Pacific nations and support from various organizations.
Managing Drought in the Southern Plains
A series of archived and ongoing webinars on drought in Southern Plains with a focus on agriculture sponsored by the Souther Climate Impacts Planning Program.
Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion (2010)
This is the most recent assessment of ozone depletion. Produced by the WMO and UNEP every four years since 1985, the assessment is the work of over 300 scientists including some from NOAA. The 2010 report highlights advances in the understanding of the role greenhouse gases play in ozone alteration. It also includes updated information for policymakers including ozone projections for the 21st century.
Technical Considerations for Use of Geospatial Data in Sea Level Change Mapping and Assessment
Guidance for federal and state agencies and coastal planners for conducting sea level change assessments and mapping. The report is intended to provide technical guidance to agencies, practitioners, and coastal decision-makers seeking to use and/or collect geospatial data to assist with sea level change assessments and mapping products.
Advancing the Science of Climate Change
A strong, credible body of scientific evidence shows that “climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for a broad range of human and natural systems,” concludes this America’s Climate Choices report. The report recommends that a single federal entity be given the authority and resources to coordinate a national research effort integrated across many disciplines to improve understanding and responses to climate change.
Trends in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances, Ozone Layer Recovery, and Implications for Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure
This report integrates current knowledge of the stratospheric ozone layer, human-emitted ozone-depleting substances, and the amount of harmful ultraviolet radiation reaching Earth's surface.
Uses and Limitations of Observations, Data, Forecasts, and Other Projections in Decision Support for Selected Sectors and Regions
Scientific information about Earth's climate, water, air, land, and other dynamic processes is essential for our understanding of humankind's relationship to our natural resources and our environment. This report examines contributions of Earth science information in decision support activities and their relationship to climate change science.
Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios for Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radiatively Active Gases and Aerosols
An assessment of the effects of short-lived gases and particles in the atmosphere. They can significantly change regional surface temperatures. By the year 2100 short-lived gases and particles may account for as much as 40 percent of the warming over the continental U.S. in summertime.
Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations
Scientists use mathematical models of Earth's climate, run on the most powerful computers available, to examine hypotheses about past and present-day climates. This report describes the models and their ability to simulate climate.
Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations
The findings presented in this report draw from scenarios designed to stabilize the influence of a suite of greenhouse gases. Three climate-modeling groups independently developed a reference scenario and then developed four contrasting stabilization scenarios for comparison.
Fact Sheets (5)
Reducing the Nation's Vulnerability to Extreme Weather & Climate
NOAA is helping people prepare and protect their homes, communities, and businesses from extreme climate- and weather-related impacts.
Sustaining Marine Ecosystems in a Changing Climate
NOAA envisions a future with a strong economy and thriving marine ecosystems. NOAA and its partners are working to identify and manage risks to our nation's valuable marine ecosystems and the services they provide.
Preparing for Drought & Water Resource Challenges
All regions and economic sectors in the U.S. depend on adequate and reliable water supplies. This briefing sheet describes how NOAA is working to help the nation understand, prepare for, and respond to drought, flooding, and other water resource challenges.
Preparing for Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding
The U.S. has one of the world's largest and most diverse coastal zones. Climate variability and change present real threats to our coasts. NOAA is working with partners to build climate-smart coastal communities.
Toward a Climate Smart Nation
Americans' health, security, and economic wellbeing are tied to climate and weather. This briefing sheet describes how NOAA is leveraging its climate science and services to help the nation prepare for the impacts of climate variability and change.
Decision Support Tools (17)
Introducing the Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT)
NOAA unveiled this powerful new tool in July 2013 to help users produce data-driven answers to climate-related questions. The tool helps users link local weather and water events to signals in the climate system; understand how global climate change contributes to local climate trends; and explore how climate variability contributes to local impacts. Registration is required to use LCAT.
Pacific Storms Climatology Products
The Pacific Storms Climatology Products website provides access to an integrated suite of data products that delineate patterns and trends of storm frequency and intensity in the Pacific Ocean.
The PacificIslandsClimate.org (PIKO) website is a gateway to a broad range of information related to climate in the Pacific Islands. PIKO includes summaries of programs, projects, and activities, as well as data, information products, and services.
Drought Monitoring Tools
A host of drought monitoring tools used to prepare the U.S. Drought Monitor maintained by the National Climatic Data Center. The site includes streamflow, preciptiation, topsoi, and fire incidence information.
TreeFlow is a comprehensive web resource for tree-ring reconstructions of streamflow and climate, providing easy access to reconstruction data as well as information about how the data were developed, and can be used. Originally developed by researchers at the Climate Assessment for the Southwest, TreeFlow has a growing collection of tree ring constructions for river basins throughout the Western United States.
Arizona DroughtWatch is a tool designed by the Climate Assessment for the Southwest to collect, summarize, and display timely observations of drought impacts across Arizona. The tool was developed to support drought monitoring efforts spearheaded by county-level Local Drought Impact Groups organized in support of the Arizona State Drought Preparedness Plan.
C-CAP Land Cover Atlas
An online data viewer from NOAA's Coastal Services Center providing user-friendly access to regional land cover and land cover change information. The Land Cover Atlas eliminates the need for desktop geographic information system software, or advanced technical expertise, by processing Coastal Change Analysis Program data for the user and providing easy access. The tool summarizes general change trends (such as forest losses or new development) and can highlight specific changes of interest (salt marsh losses to open water, or evergreen forest losses to development, for instance).
Impervious Surface Analysis Tool
The Impervious Surface Analysis Tool (ISAT), which is available as a geographic information system extension, is used to calculate the percentage of impervious surface area within user-selected geographic areas (e.g, watersheds, municipalities, subdivisions). In small watersheds, the correlation between an increase in impervious surfaces and a decrease in water quality has been well established. People use the information derived from ISAT to predict how different management scenarios might impact local water quality.
OpenNSPECT, an open-source version of the Nonpoint-Source Pollution and Erosion Comparison Tool (N-SPECT), is a plugin to the free MapWindow GIS open-source platform. Enhancements in this version of N-SPECT include faster processing time, additional coefficients for common land cover data products, and a comparison function to evaluate differences in land use scenarios.
Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases-Carbon Management Evaluation Tool
A decision support tool for agricultural producers, land managers, soil scientists and other agricultural interests, COMET-VR estimates soil carbon changes for management alternatives for a ten-year projection period within each Major Land Resource Area (MLRA) allowing users to estimate soil carbon sequestration on a parcel of land. The COMET-VR tool is provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Ultraviolet Index Forecast Bulletin and Map
NOAA's Climate Prediction Center provides daily forecast maps of Ultraviolet (UV) Index for 58 U.S. cities, colored coded to their anticipated level of exposure. According to the World Health Organization, prolonged exposure to the sun's UV radiation may result in acute and chronic health effects on our skin, eyes, and immune system.
U.S. Hazards Outlooks
A summary of forecast and hazards—including extreme heat & cold, flood & drought, winds and severe weather—for 3-7 days as well as 8-14 days into the future.
National and Local Weather Hazards
The National Weather Service provides weather, water, and climate data, forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and enhancement of the national economy. These products include forecast and warnings of environmental events that can impact human health, such as excessive heat, flooding, severe cold, and more.
U.S. Drought Monitor
Drought is one of the most costly natural disasters affecting the United States. The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) helps the nation and North America understand and proactively prepare for drought by providing data and information about the extent and potential impacts of drought and associated risks. The system provides a variety of decision support tools to help people prepare for and mitigate the effects of drought.
U.S. Record-Setting Events
This NOAA National Climatic Data Center tool allows users to look up record-setting events for a given day, month, or all time. Specifically, users can look for record highest minimum or maximum temperature, lowest min/max temperature, precipitation, or snowfall. This information is available for individual U.S. states, U.S. regions, and U.S. territories.
Crop Moisture Stress Index
A measure of the effects of drought and catastrophic wetness on national crop yields for corn and soy.
Integrated Surface Data
A database from the National Climatic Data Center of global hourly and climate observations compiled from numerous sources, into a single common ASCII format and common data model. Includes information such as wind speed and direction for 10,000 stations, with some dating as far back as 1901.
Data Products (27)
OceanWatch-Central Pacific acquires and processes satellite information and creates a variety of satellite data products for the Pacific Ocean region. We provide daily satellite observations of the Central Pacific Region.
Asia-Pacific Data Research Center
The Asia-Pacific Data Research Center increases understanding of climate variability in the Asia-Pacific region by developing the computational, data management, and networking infrastructure necessary to make data resources readily accessible and usable to researchers and general users; and by undertaking data-intensive research activities that will both advance knowledge and lead to improvements in data preparation and data products.
Pacific Islands Climate Outlooks Catalog
The Pacific Islands Climate Outlooks Catalog is a gateway to a broad range of climate data and outlooks that are relevant to the Pacific Islands region.
Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program Data Products
The NOAA-funded Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program (SCIPP) has developed a range of experimental and prototype tools to support climate-related decision-making and planning. These datasets and tools are designed to help increase resiliency and preparedness for weather and climate extremes now and in the future across the Southern-Central United States.
Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas
The Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas provides online answers to questions related to the physical environment, marine resources, and economic activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Information is presented in the form of map plates with descriptions, written by recognized subject matter experts, explaining how the data were gathered and how they are relevant. The Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas, prepared by NOAA, has data from federal, state and non-governmental agencies, and academia.
Climate normals are the average values of meteorological parameters -- such as temperature, precipitation, frost/freeze data, and snowfall data -- over 30-year spans. The climate normals data help describe typical climate conditions for a given place and time of year, and are used as a baseline to which current conditions can be compared.
This data product provides high-resolution six-hourly, daily, and monthly wind speeds over the world’s oceans at 10-meter height. Data are available from 1987 to the present.
National Solar Radiation Database
The National Solar Radiation Database contains 30 years (1961-1990) of solar radiation and supplementary meteorological data, and hourly solar radiation and meteorological data for 237 National Weather Service sites in the United States, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Also includes maps of the monthly amounts of solar power that could be generated with various solar collectors.
Surface Radiation Budget Network
Seven stations continuously collecting solar, infrared, meteorology, and ultraviolet radiation data are located in climatologically diverse regions of the U.S.—including Colorado, Illinois, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, Pennsylvania, and South Dakota.
Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) Network
Solar and ultraviolet radiation (UV) data recorded from 1995-2001 for nine sites located in California, Florida, New Mexico, North Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin.
Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) Solar Energy Forecast
The LAPS system produces rapidly updated, high-resolution analyses and forecasts of solar radiation. The cloud analysis uses satellite, METARs, radar, aircraft, and model first guess information to produce an hourly 3-D field of cloud fraction, cloud liquid, and cloud ice. The cloud analysis and satellite data together are used to produce a gridded analysis of total solar radiation.
Air Quality Forecast Guidance Maps
Twice per day NOAA's National Weather Services publishes digital maps that show national forecasts for ozone, smoke, and dust. Ozone is shown as 1-hour and 8-hour concentrations. Official Air Quality point forecasts, issued by state and local air quality forecasters, along with additional information on air quality can be found under EPA's AIRNow site. Surface and column-averaged concentrations of predicted smoke for large fires are displayed as 1-hour averages, updated each day.
Smoke Forecasting System
The NOAA Smoke Forecasting System integrates satellite information on the location of wildfires with weather data inputs from the North American Mesoscale model and smoke dispersion simulations. The result is a daily prediction of smoke transport and concentration 48 hours into the future. The model also incorporates U.S. Forest Service estimates for wildfire smoke emissions based on vegetation cover. This system is intended as guidance for air quality forecasters and the public for fine particulate matter emitted from large wildfires and agricultural burning, which can elevate concentrations of fine particles to unhealthy levels. Particle pollution can be particularly hazardous for people with asthma and other respiratory illneses.
Air Stagnation Index
Atmospheric pollution manifests itself in many ways, ranging from reduced visibility to dangerous respiratory problems and discomfort. Atmospheric pollution can be gaseous (e.g. ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) and/or particulate (e.g. soot, dust). The degree of pollution is dependent on a number of factors: source, transport from source, and build up over time through air stagnation. The stagnation index maps show where in the United States air has stagnated, leading to potential impacts on human and environmental health.
Global Vegetation Health Products
The vegetation health products can be used as proxy data for monitoring vegetation health, drought, soil saturation, moisture and thermal conditions, fire risk, greenness of vegetation cover, vegetation fraction, leave area index, start/end of the growing season, crop and pasture productivity, teleconnection with ENSO, desertification, mosquito-borne diseases, invasive species, ecological resources, land degradation, etc.
Integrated Surface Database
Compiles global hourly and synoptic observations from numerous sources into a single common ASCII format and common data model. Station data available worldwide with some data as far back as 1901. Over 11,000 stations are currently "active" and updated daily. Includes many parameters such as wind speed & direction, wind gust, temperature, dew point, cloud data, sea level pressure, altimeter setting, station pressure, present weather, visibility, precipitation amounts for various time periods, snow depth, and more.
Comparative Climatic Data
These data tables of meteorological elements outline the climatic conditions at major weather observing stations in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and Pacific Islands. The data are from observing sites presently in use or include data from former sites that are comparable in exposure. Stations having less than 3 years of data for the current operating site are omitted from the tables of observed data.
Monthly editions contain station daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation. Some stations provide daily snowfall, snow depth, evaporation, and soil temperature data. Each issue also contains monthly summaries for heating and cooling degree days (65 degrees Fbase). The July issue also contains monthly heating degree days and snow data for the preceding July through June. The annual issue contains monthly and annual averages of temperature, precipitation, temperature extremes, freeze data, soil temperatures, evaporation, and a recap of monthly cooling degree days.
Local Climatological Data
A monthly summary from major airport weather stations that includes a daily account of temperature extremes, degree days, precipitation and winds. Also included are the hourly precipitation and abbreviated 3-hourly weather observations.
Regional Snowfall Index
NOAA produces the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two-thirds of the United States. The RSI ranks snowstorm impacts on a scale from 1 to 5, similar to the Fujita scale for tornadoes or the Saffir-Simpson scale for hurricanes.
U.S. Snow Climatology
Here you can access snowfall and snow depth statistics for several thousand non-airport stations in the National Weather Service (NWS) Cooperative (COOP) Network across the contiguous U.S. and Alaska. Data are available for daily, monthly, and seasonal snowfall and snow depth totals, which are useful in economic and engineering decision-making, and provide the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) with an objective basis for declaring federal snow disasters.
This online resource examines tornado activity across the United States across temporal and spatial scales. The contiguous United States is the most active tornado region in the world, with an average of 1,253 tornadoes occurring annually. The information and data provided here serves as a baseline for comparing current tornado activity to the past, providing a complete historical perspective.
International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS)
NOAA’s IBTrACS system provides tropical cyclone best-track data in one centralized location to aid understanding of the distribution, frequency, and intensity of tropical cyclones worldwide.
Severe Weather Data
This online resource provides links to several NOAA online severe weather databases, including the Storm Events Database and the Severe Weather Data Inventory. These databases provide online access to files for storm and hurricane data in commonly used formats, such as shapefiles for GIS applications, KMZ for Google Earth, comma-separated values, and extensible markup language (XML).
North America Climate Extremes Monitoring
This tool was developed to improve understanding of changes in extreme climate conditions by giving users an ability to examine trends and occurrences of certain types of extreme or threshold events at a station-by-station level. It currently provides data and analysis for eight indices that have been defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). An interactive map allows users to select a month, season, or specific year (from 1955 to present) to view a snapshot of values for a specific index across North America.
Climate Extremes Index
The Climate Extremes Index charts the occurrence of specific extreme events in the United States from 1910 to present. In most cases, extreme events are defined as being in the outermost (“most unusual”) ten percent of a place’s history. Extreme event indicators tracked include monthly maximum and minimum temperature, daily precipitation, drought severity index, and tropical storm wind velocity. Analyses are available at the national and regional levels.
National Climatic Data Center: Marine Data Collection
Marine data products from the National Climatic Data Center including archived meteorological data from ships at sea and buoys.