The National Research Council (NRC) defines a CDR as a time series of measurements of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to determine climate variability and change. (National Research Council, 2004).
For the first time, NOAA is applying modern data analysis methods, which have advanced significantly in the last decade, to these historical global satellite data. This process will unravel the underlying climate trend and variability information and return new economic and scientific value from the records. In parallel, NCDC will maintain and extend these Climate Data Records by applying the same methods to present-day and future satellite measurements.
Climate Prediction Center Temperature, Precipitation, and GFS Forecast products that include operational predictions of climate variability, real-time global climate monitoring products, and assessments of the origins of climate anomalies. The retrospective analyses and forecast products span time scales from a week to a year and cover the land, ocean, and atmosphere, extending into the stratosphere.
The GHCN-Daily was developed to meet the needs of climate analysis and monitoring studies that require data at a sub-monthly time resolution (e.g., assessments of the frequency of heavy rainfall, heat wave duration, etc.). It also serves as NCDCs sole source of U.S. Summary of the Day data, providing a diverse array of users in the public and private sector with weather and climate observations that meet needs from the local to national level. By bringing together contributions from dozens of national and international sources and combining historical with near real-time observations, this dataset helps users understand todays climate and how it impacts society while helping users prepare for weather and climate conditions in the future.
GHCN (Global Historical Climatology Network)-Daily is a data set whose aim is to address the need for historical daily records over global land areas. Like its monthly counterpart (GHCN-Monthly), GHCN-Daily is a composite of climate records from numerous sources that were merged and then subjected to a suite of quality assurance reviews. The meteorological elements measured for the data set include, but are not limited to, daily maximum and minimum temperature, temperature at the time of observation, precipitation (i.e., rainfall and snow water equivalent), snowfall and snow depth. GHCN-Daily serves as the official archive for daily data from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Surface Network (GSN) and is particularly well suited for monitoring and assessment activities related to the frequency and magnitude of extremes. Sources for the GHCN-Daily data set include, but are not limited, to U.S. Cooperative Summary of the Day, U.S. Fort data, U.S. Climate Reference Network, Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, and numerous international sources. The dataset contains measurements from over 75,000 stations worldwide,about two thirds of which are for precipitation measurement only. Approximately 8500 are regularly updated with observations from within the last month. While most of these sites report precipitation , daily maximum and minimum temperatures are available at more than 25,000 of them, and over 24,000 contain records of snowfall and/or snow depth. The process of integrating data from multiple sources into the GHCN-Daily dataset takes place in three steps: screening the source data for stations whose identity is unknown or questionable; classifying each station in a source dataset either as one that is already represented in GHCN-Daily or as a new site; and mingling the data from the different sources. The first two of these steps are performed whenever a new source dataset or additional stations become available, while the actual mingling of data is part of the automated processing that creates GHCN-Daily on a regular basis. GHCN-Daily data are subject to a suite of quality assurance checks. The checks consist of several types of carefully evaluated tests that detect duplicated data, climatological outliers, and various inconsistencies (internal, temporal, and spatial). Manual review of random samples of flagged values was used to set the threshold for each procedure such that the tests false-positive rate is minimized. In addition, the tests are performed in a deliberate sequence in an effort to enhance the performance of the later checks by detecting errors with the checks applied earlier in the sequence.
The Global Hourly Summaries are simple indicators of observational normals which include climatic data summarizations and frequency distributions. The available summaries (mean January, July or annual) include: Ceiling-Visibility, Dew Point Statistics, Relative Humidity, Sky Cover, Sea-Level Pressure, Station Pressure, Temperature Statistics, and Wind-Speed Summaries. These typically are statistical analyses of station data over 5-, 10-, 20- or 30-year time periods. This dataset totaling over 350 gigabytes is comprised of 40 different types of weather observations with 20,000 stations worldwide. The National Climatic Data Center and the U.S. Navy developed these value added products in the form of hourly summaries from many of these observations, and these data are a subset of the Integrated Surface Hourly dataset (DSI-3505).
Integrated Surface Data (ISD) (DSI-3505). The Integrated Surface Data (ISD) database is composed of worldwide surface weather observations from about 20,000 stations, collected and stored from sources such as the Automated Weather Network (AWN), the Global Telecommunications System (GTS), the National Weather Service's Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS), and data keyed from paper forms. Most digital observations are decoded either at the US Air Force 14th Weather Squadron or at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, NC or at operational centers and forwarded there. Each agency is responsible for data ingest, quality control, and customer support for surface climatological data. All data are stored in a single ASCII format as an archive for hourly and synoptic (3-hourly) weather observations. The data are sorted by station-year-month-day-hour-minute.
Global Surface Summary of the Day is a product produced by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), and is derived from the synoptic/hourly observations contained in the Integrated Surface Hourly (ISH) dataset (DSI-3505). The latest daily summary data are normally available 1-2 days after the date-time of the observations used in the daily summaries, and over 9000 worldwide stations' data are available. Daily elements (as available) include mean values of temperature, dew point, sea level and station pressures, visibility, and wind speed plus maximum sustained wind speed and/or wind gusts, maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation amounts, snow depth, and indicators for occurrences of various weather elements. Historical data are generally available for 1929 to the present, with data from 1973 to the present being the most complete. Daily extremes and totals--maximum wind gust, precipitation amount, and snow depth-- only appear if the station reports the data sufficiently to provide a valid value. Therefore, these three elements appear less frequently than other values. Since these elements are derived from the original synoptic/hourly data as are reported and based on Greenwich Mean Time (GMT, 0000Z-2359Z), they often comprise a 24-hour period which includes a portion of the previous day (i.e., offset from local standard times).
International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) Project (DSI-9637). The major constraint in improving scientific understanding of the observed trends and variability of tropical cyclone activity has been a lack of accurate, quality controlled best track data for all tropical cyclone basins globally. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center developed the IBTrACS project, which took the initial step of synthesizing and merging best track data from all official Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWCs) and the WMO Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers (RSMCs) who are responsible for developing and archiving best track data worldwide. The dataset contains the position, maximum sustained winds, minimum central pressure, and storm nature for every tropical cyclone globally at 6-hour intervals in UTC. Statistics from the merge are also provided (such as number of centers tracking the storm, range in pressure, median wind speed, etc.). The dataset period is from 1848 to the present with dataset updates performed semi-annually.
ICOADS is the world's largest collection of marine surface in situ observations with 400+ million records for 1662 through the present. ICOADS is developed and maintained as a cooperative effort between NSF's National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA): specifically its Climate Diagnostics Center (CDC), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research Sciences (CIRES) of the University of Colorado, and NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC).
U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data (DSI-3260). Data source is approximately 2,000 monthly U.S. weather stations and selected non-U.S. stations with the capability to measure precipitation at 15 minute intervals. Detaily total precipitation also included. Data archived from most states as far back as 1970 or 1971, and continues to the present.
Annual Climatological Summary is a product derived from the Summary of the Month (DSI-3220) data set. This product contains monthly and annual summaries for over 8,000 U.S. locations. Major parameters include monthly mean maximum, minimum and average temperatures, monthly total precipitation and snowfall, heating and cooling degree days, number of days that temperatures and precipitation exceed thresholds, and extreme daily temperature and precipitation amounts.
U.S. Climate Indices are extracted from the National Climatic Data Center's (NCDC's) U.S. Temperature-Precipitation-Drought Index (DSI-9460) database, and provides access to current U.S. temperature, percipitation and drought indices. Divisional indices are: Precipitation index, Palmer Drought Severity Index, Palmer Hydrological Drought Index, Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index, Temperature, Palmer Z Index, Cooling Degree Days, Heating Degree Days, and Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPI) for 1-month, 2-month, 3-month,6-month, 12-month, and 24-month (SPI).
Climate Reference Network (CRN) (DSI-3286). The CRN data set containes hourly observations, made by an automated instrument package, of U.S. surface meteorological data at stations that are specifically included for their representation of the climate of the U.S. Each CRN station measures temperature and precipitation, wind speed at thermometer height, and solar radiation. Soil moisture and soil temperature are measured using sensors provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Data collection began in 2003.
U.S. Historical Daily Snowfall provides a dynamic map of stations-based daily snowfall amounts by day or accumulations of up to 15 days. Snowfall totals are obtained from the U.S. Daily Surface Data beginning winter season of 2006-2007.
U.S. Historical Monthly & Seasonal Snowfall provides a map of station-based monthly or seasonal snowfall amount obtained from the U.S. Monthly Summaries Data. Some data are avilable as early as 1886.
U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data (DSI-3240). Data source is approximately 5,500 U.S. National Weather Service (NWS), airport, and cooperative stations in the U.S. and U.S. territories which measure hourly or daily precipitation accumulations. Earliest data availability varies considerably by state and region, ranging from 1900 to 1978 and continues to the present.
U.S. Local Climatological Data (DSI-3715). The Local Climatological Data file is produced from National Weather Service (NWS) first and second order stations and data are contained in monthly and annual publications. Monthly summaries include maximum, minimum, and average temperature, dew point temperature, station pressure, visibility, weather type, degree days (heating and cooling), precipitation, average wind speeds and extremes, sky cover, snowfall and snow depth, and other variables. The annual summary contains monthly and annual averages of the above climatological data for the current year and a table of normals, means, and extremes of these same data.
GIS U.S. Monthly Extremes is a web based product extracted from the digital dataset U.S. COOP Summary of the Month (DSI-3220). In any given year there are about 8,000 stations operating and recording as little as one parameter (precipitation), or several parameters. The earliest data are from 1831 and are organized by month. Data are updated on a monthly basis. Attributes included for the GIS application are COOP ID, WBAN ID, Station Name, State, Yea, Latitude, Longitude, Stations elevation, Precipitation and Temperature Extremes, and Snowfall/Snow Depth Extremes.
NWS Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Level II & III digital data sets (DSI-6500 and DSI-7000, respectively) archive data from over 150 Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D0 sites throughout the U.S. and overseas locations. The NEXRAD Level II data contain three meteorological base data quantities: reflectivity, mean radial velocity, and spectrum width, and are recorded at all NWS and most AWS and FAA WSR 88-D sites. From the Level II quantities, computer processing generates numerous meteorological analysis products known as Level III data including baseline reflectivity and velocity, vertical integrated liquid, VAD wind profile, and precipitation products. Overlay products also give information on certain parameters including storm structure, hail, mesocyclone, tornadic vortex signature, and storm tracking information for identified storm cells. Data are available from June 1991 to 1 day from present.
The National Integrated Drought Information System's (NIDIS's) North American Drought Monitor (NADM) is a copperative effort between drought experts in Canada, Mexico, and the United States to monitor drought across the continent. Drought indices are used to detect and measure droughts, but different indices measure drought in different ways, and no single index works under all circumstances. The NADM program was designed to overcome past limitations with the objective of providing operational assessments of drought across the continent with monthly operational DM maps and discussions made available to the general public.
U.S. Station Normals (Annual, Monthly, Daily, Hourly) is digital data set archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The climatological normals presented in this data set are based on the 30-year period 1981-2010.
Gulf Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts is composed of data from coastal managers and scientists with a preliminary look at sea level rise and coastal flooding imapcts in the United States. Data and maps provided are avilable at different scale levels in an effort to assist with gauging trends and prioritizing actions for different scenarios.
Throughout its history, NOAA has diversified its responsibilities and services and has located offices where they can best serve the needs of various locations and regions throughout the country. The "NOAA" set of maps show locations where primary NOAA offices, programs, or laboratories are located and the regions for which they are responsible. These include program offices and headquarters, data and prediction centers, NOAA research laboratories, river forecast centers, national marine sanctuaries, National Weather Service regions, and NOAA Climate.gov regions. NOAA has also engaged in an ongoing expansion of partnering with other state or regional consortiums, educational facilities, and cooperative institutions to provide regionalized services, collect specialized data, and to facilitate research. The "Partners" maps show the locations and regions of responsibility for Regional Integrated Sciences & Assessments (RISA) programs, Regional Climate Centers, State Climatologist offices, Sea Grant offices, National Estuarine Research offices, and the names and locations of the various cooperative institutes.
The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is producing a new regional snowfall index; the Regional Snowfall Index (ReSIS). Like the Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS), ReSIS uses snowfall and population to create an index that puts snowstorms and their societal impacts into historical perspective. However, ReSIS only uses snowfall and population information within a particular region (a collection of states) to calculate an index. NESIS uses snowfall and population information from the eastern two thirds of the United States and is therefore a quasi-national index. It is called "Northeast" because some of the constants in the algorithm used to calculate NESIS are specifically calibrated to the northeast; a region with abundant snowfall and a large population. The constants in the ReSIS algorithms are specific to the region in which an index is being calculated. Therefore, ReSIS is a true regional index.