In the Arctic, an ocean is surrounded by continents, while Antarctica is continent surrounded by oceans. These differences in the arrangement of land and water contribute to differences in each polar region’s climate, oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns, and seasonal and long-term sea ice patterns.

Starting in July, when you hear that a day was hotter, or colder, or rainier than normal, that normal will be a little different from what it was in the past.

Natural climate phenomena—the North Atlantic Oscillation & La Niña—can explain much of this winter's temperature patterns across North America.

Deep snow that fell across the Great Plains and the Northeast in late January and early February is the latest installment in the second very wintry winter in a row for the eastern U.S.

In May and June each year, speculation about the coming of the monsoon fills newspapers and conversations across India. Everyone is concerned about if, when, and how much rain will arrive. But none have more at stake than India’s over 100 million farming households.

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