In this activity, students model circulation in gyres, explore characteristics of gyres found around the world, and predict the climate impacts of changes to the circulation in these gyres and climate on adjacent land. Gyres, large systems of rotating ocean currents, play an important role in Earth's climate system.

Arctic Report Card: 2011

The annual Report Card provides clear, concise scientific information on the state of the Arctic region, organized into 5 sections: Atmosphere, Sea Ice & Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, Terrestrial Ecosystems, and Hydrology & Terrestrial Cryosphere.  This edition was prepared by an international team of 121 scientists from 14 different countries.  Independent peer-review of the 2011 Report Card was organized by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme of the Arctic Council.

Past Climate Variability and Change in the Arctic and at High Latitudes

Over the past 30 years, average temperatures in the Arctic have increased at almost twice the rate of the planet as a whole. Such temperature changes have been accompanied by shrinking sea ice, melting ice and permafrost on land, and widespread impacts to land and ocean ecosystems.

Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere: Steps for Understanding and Reconciling Differences

This report addresses previously identified discrepancies between observations and simulations of surface and atmospheric temperature trends.  It is an important revision to the conclusions of earlier reports from the U.S. National Research Council and the IPCC.