Past Climate Variability and Change in the Arctic and at High Latitudes
January 1, 2009
Over the past 30 years, average temperatures in the Arctic have increased at almost twice the rate of the planet as a whole. Such temperature changes have been accompanied by shrinking sea ice, melting ice and permafrost on land, and widespread impacts to land and ocean ecosystems.
Decision-Support Experiments and Evaluations Using Seasonal-to-Interannual Forecasts and Observational Data: A Focus on Water Resources
November 12, 2008
An evaluation of decision support experiments that have used seasonal-to-interannual climate forecasts and observational data. Earth's climate varies naturally and also changes in response to human activity. Our ability to adapt and respond to climate depends on our understanding of the system and how to incorporate this understanding into resource management decisions.
Uses and Limitations of Observations, Data, Forecasts, and Other Projections in Decision Support for Selected Sectors and Regions
September 8, 2008
Scientific information about Earth's climate, water, air, land, and other dynamic processes is essential for our understanding of humankind's relationship to our natural resources and our environment. This report examines contributions of Earth science information in decision support activities and their relationship to climate change science.
Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios for Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radiatively Active Gases and Aerosols
September 3, 2008
An assessment of the effects of short-lived gases and particles in the atmosphere. They can significantly change regional surface temperatures. By the year 2100 short-lived gases and particles may account for as much as 40 percent of the warming over the continental U.S. in summertime.
A database from the National Climatic Data Center of global hourly and climate observations compiled from numerous sources, into a single common ASCII format and common data model. Includes information such as wind speed and direction for 10,000 stations, with some dating as far back as 1901.
Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate
May 31, 2008
An assessment in the state of knowledge concerning changes in weather and climate extremes in North America and U.S. territories. Changes in extreme weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate.
A synthesis of the current knowledge of North America's carbon budget and its context within the global carbon cycle. This report provides scientific information for decision support focused on key issues for carbon management and policy.
Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations
June 30, 2007
The findings presented in this report draw from scenarios designed to stabilize the influence of a suite of greenhouse gases. Three climate-modeling groups independently developed a reference scenario and then developed four contrasting stabilization scenarios for comparison.
Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere: Steps for Understanding and Reconciling Differences
March 31, 2006
This report addresses previously identified discrepancies between observations and simulations of surface and atmospheric temperature trends. It is an important revision to the conclusions of earlier reports from the U.S. National Research Council and the IPCC.