Climate Stabilization Targets

Greenhouse gas emissions and increased global temperature will change weather, climate, ecosystems, and food supply. Each degree Celsius (1.8 deg Fahrenheit) increase in global average temperature (up to 4 deg C) would likely result in the following: 5% to 10% less total rain in southwest North America, the Mediterranean, and southern Africa; 5% to 10% less streamflow in some river basins; 5% to 15% lower yields of some crops. The document clarifies short- and long-term consequences of various scenarios.

Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Agreements to limit emissions of greenhouse gases are currently the focus of international negotiations, and with such accords will come the need to accurately estimate these emissions, monitor their changes over time, and verify them with independent data. This report identifies strategic investments that could be made within 5 years to both improve self-reporting and yield a capability to verify these estimates and reduce uncertainties about emissions to less than 10 percent.

Global Climate Change Impacts in the U.S. (Agriculture)

A chapter from the 2009 U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) report, titled Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, focused specifically on the intersections of climate and agriculture.

Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts

A detailed look at global distributions and properties of airborne particles known as "aerosols." The report examines the various ways in which aerosols influence climate, and the uncertainties in our ability to observe and measure these particles' impact on the climate system.

Past Climate Variability and Change in the Arctic and at High Latitudes

Over the past 30 years, average temperatures in the Arctic have increased at almost twice the rate of the planet as a whole. Such temperature changes have been accompanied by shrinking sea ice, melting ice and permafrost on land, and widespread impacts to land and ocean ecosystems.

Decision-Support Experiments and Evaluations Using Seasonal-to-Interannual Forecasts and Observational Data: A Focus on Water Resources

An evaluation of decision support experiments that have used seasonal-to-interannual climate forecasts and observational data. Earth's climate varies naturally and also changes in response to human activity. Our ability to adapt and respond to climate depends on our understanding of the system and how to incorporate this understanding into resource management decisions.

Uses and Limitations of Observations, Data, Forecasts, and Other Projections in Decision Support for Selected Sectors and Regions

Scientific information about Earth's climate, water, air, land, and other dynamic processes is essential for our understanding of humankind's relationship to our natural resources and our environment. This report examines contributions of Earth science information in decision support activities and their relationship to climate change science.

Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios for Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radiatively Active Gases and Aerosols

An assessment of the effects of short-lived gases and particles in the atmosphere. They can significantly change regional surface temperatures. By the year 2100 short-lived gases and particles may account for as much as 40 percent of the warming over the continental U.S. in summertime.

Integrated Surface Data

A database from the National Climatic Data Center of global hourly and climate observations compiled from numerous sources, into a single common ASCII format and common data model. Includes information such as wind speed and direction for 10,000 stations, with some dating as far back as 1901.

Climate Impacts on U.S. Living Marine Resources: National Marine Fisheries Service Concerns, Activities and Needs

A 2008 report on climate impacts on coastal and marine ecosystems as it relates to the National Marine Fisheries Service's work.