Includes natural processes within the climate system: orbital patterns, solar radiation, oceans, atmosphere, water cycle, the natural greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, regional climates and differences between climate and weather.

In this activity, students learn how to read, analyze, and construct climographs. These climographs are a graphic way of displaying monthly average temperature and precipitation. Students also practice matching climographs to various locations and summarize global-scale climate patterns revealed by comparing climographs.

In this lesson, students explore several facets of the impact of volcanic eruptions on the atmosphere. Students analyze three types of visual information: a graph of aerosol optical depth v. global temperature, a global map with temperature anomalies, and an ash plume photograph. In the hands-on activity, students use math to determine the rate and estimated time of arrival of an ash plume at an airfield.

This video describes the complex connections between land (the lithosphere) and other parts of Earth's climate system. Animations from NOAA show how distance from the equator affects average temperature in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The video emphasizes five land factors that influence climate: latitude, elevation, topography, surface reflectivity, and land use.

Global Anthropogenic Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990-2030

This summary report by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides historical and projected estimates of emissions of non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases (GHGs) from anthropogenic sources. The report provides a consistent and comprehensive estimate of non-CO2 greenhouse gases for 92 individual countries and eight regions. The analysis provides information that can be used to understand national contributions of GHG emissions, historical progress on reductions, and mitigation opportunities.

U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2008

The U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2008 (USDA GHG Inventory) is a comprehensive assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks in U.S. agriculture and forests. The USDA GHG Inventory provides extensive, in-depth emissions and sinks estimates for livestock, cropland, and forests as well as energy consumption in livestock and cropland agriculture. 

State of the Climate in 2010

Over 360 authors from 45 countries contributed to this comprehensive appraisal of the Earth’s climate. Observations from pole-to-pole show climate patterns such as La Niña and El Niño contributed to some climate events this year. Trends consistent with manmade climate change over the last 50 years are also continuing. These include warming temperatures, melting glaciers and saltier seas, which are related to rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

Assessing Economic Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Reliable estimates of the costs and benefits to the U.S. economy for various emissions reduction and adaptation strategies are critical to federal climate change R&D portfolio planning and investment decisions. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Academies organized a workshop to consider these issues. The workshop participants discussed three dimensions: policy, analysis, and economics.

Strategies to Promote Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

This report systematically examines the market readiness of key technologies important to meeting climate change mitigation goals.  It assesses the barriers and business risks impeding their progress and greater market application.  The report was sponsored by the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (a multi-agency group led by the U.S. Department of Energy) and was submitted to the President and Congress in January 2009.

Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis

A comprehensive and up-to-date scientific assessment of past, present, and future global climate change. The assessment confirms that the scientific understanding of the climate system and its sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions is now richer and deeper than ever before. The chapters forming the bulk of this report describe scientists assessment of the state-of-knowledge in their respective fields.

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