El Niño and La Niña conditions occur when abnormally warm or cool waters accumulate in tropical latitudes of the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. The Oceanic Nino Index is the tool NOAA scienitsts use to watch for these temperature changes. 

The total amount of water on Earth isn’t increasing, but the volume of liquid that fills the ocean is growing as ice and snow on land melt. The water is also getting warmer, which makes it expand. 

Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability

On March 31 in Yokohama, Japan, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approved and released Working Group II's Summary for Policymakers and the underlying scientific and technical assessment.

Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities

This Technical Input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment examines vulnerabilities of infrastructures and urban systems to extreme weather and other events associated with climate change.

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